Thursday, February 28, 2019

Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Humanism Essay

psychiatric hospital behaviourism, Cognitivism and humaneism belong perhaps to the most extensively developed theories in the field of early Psychology. Their roots are said to draw from a heritage of scholarships developed by key thinkers as early as the 1900s. And as specific facets of science, their unifying goal is to explicate world port neither by dint of arbitrary and random observations nor unsubstantiated conclusions, but through a more rigorous bidding of scientific investigation (Moskowitz & Orgel, 1967, p. 107). This melodic theme attempts to successfully describe the three theories cited, and thus put them in conversation with wiz another. In the do by, this paper wishes to bring into the fore key similarities and congenator differences that may be gleaned from such a presentation.Three Psychological Theories. Behaviorism is a theory that operates on the underlying assumption that the concrete manifestations of man race manner are nothing but the result of identifiable causes or influences. format in other words, the core contention of behaviorism lies in misgiving human behavior in the context of its reactions to various stimuli (Behaviorism, 2007). account to this theory is operative principle of external reinforcements i.e., behaviorism takes the nature of human behavior as sufficiently explicable through the out-of-door forces performing on it. For instance, Ivan Pavlov in 1900 was able to demonstrate in his experiment that the salivation reflexes of dogs keep be controlled using external conditioning.By associating dog feeding sessions with lowly stimuli (say, bell ringing) it was learned that dogs eventu eachy tended to react to these secondary forces inas often as they do with primary stimuli. The idea that goes with the experiment was to establish the prediction and control of behavior (Wozniak, 1997). As a result, m two thinkers picked up this admirable conception, and, using Pavlovs investigation, a number of psych ologists began studying the how classical conditioning can be applied to human beings. (Moskowitz & Orgel, 1967, p. 107). If only to mention, other notable proponents of this theory overwhelm J. Watson, B.F. Sk cozy, and E. Thorndlike. Since behaviorism gives higher premium than most on the importance of look at the external forces affecting human behavior, it has a tendency to depreciate, if not all together deny the concept of human consciousness, or indispensable workings of the mind (Wozniak, 1997). Behaviorism assumes that the learner is necessityly passive, in that ones behavior relies intemperately on external forces to gain its concrete form. In many ways, this theory takes human behavior as tabula rasa i.e., a sheet wiped clean for external experiences to start building into. Thus, it claims that human behavior can be explained without the need to carry upcountry genial states (Behaviorism, 2007).In what appears to be a direct critique to the behaviorist theory, the cognitive psychological theory meanwhile believes that human training is a process that involves putting into use what already is present inwardly the human framework. Put in other words, instead of taking the human soulfulness as a tabula rasa, adherents of the cognitive theory seem to understand a person as a black box a repository of internal processors that enable one to achieve learning. Cognitivism was said to gain a fine amount of attention from among the diverse psychological circles in the 1960s. And noted theorists machine-accessible to this theory accommodate Merill, Reigeluth, Gagne, Briggs, Wager, among others (Cognitivism, 2007).A few significant differences may be gleaned from juxtaposing the two theories cited thus far. First, unlike behaviorism, cognitivism tends to pay closer attention to establishing inner psychological workings of a person to explain human behavior. Cognitivists close out the notion that the behavioral manifestations of a human person ar e explainable by solely citing external situationors. One can perhaps consider how human persons possess a unique manner of gaining insights a partitioning from outside experiences.For instance, if a child were to be given Lego constructs to play with, it would be perfectly difficult to explain how he or she can in the process end up building certain formation such as dolls, guns or planes if one were to only see a child from the situation of stimulus-response perspective. If only to argue, there is no stimulus-response framework to begin with. Instead, one needfully to look at the whole experience of the child from the point of count of insight building. For, according to Moskowitz and Orgel, the ability of the organism to manipulate symbols seems to be an essential component in insightful behavior (1967, p. 135). Second, unlike behaviorism, cognitivism does not charter to the concept of persons as programmed animals (Cognitivism, 2007).Far more critical, cognitive theorists reject any notion claiming that human persons are but passive recipients of external forces helpless, as they were, in the entire process of behavior formation or learning process. On the contrary, cognitive theorists believe that human persons are very much involved in their learning process and progress, inasmuch as they take part and are highly responsible in their actions. In sum, cognitivists take mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving as issues of paramount importance (Cognitivism, 2007).It can be noted that the psychological theories thus far cited involve attempts to resolve the tenseness between external and internal forces affecting human behavior. In lot of the foregoing discussions, it seems that the Humanistic psychological perspective can prove to be a theory that can somewhat integrate the conflicting claims of both the Behaviorist and Cognitivist theories. The basic contention of Humanistic perspective lies in see human persons as organisms drawn towards motivational learning. Popular proponents of this theory include A. Maslow, K. Rogers, and M. Knowles (Humanist Theories, 2007).Under this scheme, a persons behavior is taken within the context of his or her aspirations, motivations, needs, and values. And these aspects, if only to argue, stem from the a persons interaction with his or her environment, coupled with an inherent capacity to appropriate these influences into ones own worldview (Moskowitz & Orgel, 1967, p. 340). the like Behaviorism, this theory affirms the crucial role of external influences in the manner a person comes up with value system.Like Cognitivism, this theory also affirms the fact that learning uses reflection(as) guides for active experimentation and the choice of new experience (Humanistic Theories, 2007). Unlike the two theories however, Humanistic psychological science does not confine itself to a more restricted approach to understanding human behavior. Key to understanding th is theory therefore lies in the concept of self-appropriation a process that involves putting into a successful integration both the external and internal aspects of human behavior.ConclusionThis paper now ends with a thought that indeed, the three psychological theories that were discussed hereinabove do manifest distinctive differences. only when two strains of similarities can be drawn between and among them nevertheless. The first points to the fact that all the above cited theories employ scientific methods in arriving at their consecrate contentions.In fact, like most behavioral sciences, Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Humanism rely heavily on scientific methodologies to substantiate their proposed theories. Secondly, it needs to be acknowledged that these theories all contribute to the furthering of knowledge pertinent to the science of human behavior. Despite their differences, their ploughshare to the already rich heritage of the science of psychology seems very patent, i f not all together undeniable.References study Theories Knowledgebase. (2007). Behaviorism. Retrieved from, http// Theories Knowledgebase. (2007). Cognitivism. Retrieved from, Learning Theories Knowledgebase. (2007). Humanist Theories. Retrieved from, Moskowitz, M. and Orgel, A. (1969). General Psychology. A Core Text in Human Behavior. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company.Wozniak, R. (1997). Behaviourism The Early Years. Retrieved from,

Gasland and the Social Conflict Theory Essay

Gas shore up can be examined using the fond appointment supposition of tenderism. There are three main theories of socialism structural functional, social conflict, and symbolic interaction. The reason for social conflict being the best nominee for Gasland is because it shows how much federal agency, wealth, and prestige the government can hold among the U.S. population.Josh thrust is the main character in the documentary, Gasland, and he can sell his land for $100,000 to the government for them to put in natural gas areas and drill rise up for it. Other home owners with much land would do this to get capital but then once the natural gas was set tot tout ensembley over their land, there was a problem. After the wells were drilled, weewee started going away bad and people became ill because of the contaminated water. For example, one familys water was so polluted that their water was able to catch on fire. some other example of bad water was that the animals on a farm wou ld subscribe this water and start losing their hair.These many stories swept over the United States as Josh Fox went around to homes with this natural gas-water problem interviewing folks who were all deeply concerned for their well-being. Water started turning yellowish-brown and citizens had to go into town equitable to buy bottles of water to bathe in and drink. It became a huge social conflict that escaladed slowly but surely.To conclude this short essay, social conflict clearly examines in this film that how opposing interests run through both layer of society. The constant balancing of trying to progress the U.S. environment is heavy when it is happening at a rapid pace. Striving for more power may just be the main cause of social conflict.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Organizational Needs Essay

The conquest of any trade or any organization fundamentally depends on proper planning and proper utilization of its resources. It is true that success dose non comes overnight, a need for respecting exploring is required to be through with(p). subsequently planning, there comes the step of communication. The quality of communication determines the extent of the success of a business. In sight to make communication effective get byer emergence programs ar introduced to the employee by the organization.The basic aim of this kind of career development program is to make an individual employee give in his best to the corporation thus, maximizing simoleons. Although these programs were not really standardisedd by some of the organizations. And were regarded as cost oriented, but with sequences as the result was inviolable, people live its importance. A ask assessment is a corpseatic exploration of the re bearation subjects are and the way they should be. As Gutteri dge says that career development is not only the development of an individual but also the development of the counseling as a whole.It is equally essential, to last what learning will be satisfyed, what changes in an individuals performance are anticipate, what are the expected economic costs what will be the result, and after how much duration will the target be reachd. Main Aim of Organizations As we bonk that the main aim of any origination or any business done is to get maximum profits. It is the same way in order to achieve the target. A consider of hard work has to be done, like conduction of career development programs. Knowdell (1982 1984) traced the origin of career developmental programs.This would of naturally enhance their abilities of the employees as we know that a career development system with in a business is an organized formalized, planned effort to achieve a balance between the individuals. With the help of these career program employees and managers k now about their potentials and weaknesses, they come to know how to manage their own careers and this way find more confident and responsible about themselves. A career developmental program should be based on Check Actual consummationThe very first step should be to check and analyze the present abilities of the employees and of course the trustworthy satiation of the organization in which it is running. After the analyses of the current situation establish been made we could them go on to focus on our desired goal. By the help of the information gained on the abilities and on the capabilities of the employees we could by the help of counselors could guide an individual employee, on what particular part. He basically has got to focus. This practice may take time but with time slowly and gradually every individual employee would to his organization.It is very crucial that one must(prenominal) distinguish the actual needs from the perceived needs. It is true that with proper p lanning, instruction and of course not to forget full cooperation of the employee, the target of maximums profits would be achieved. An individual should work harder on his weak points and should strive to develop his stronger ones. coterie Priorities After analyzing an individual or the employees strengths and weaknesses we could know what kind of dressing is needed by an individual. What time, money should be allocated on him. One thing which should be kept in mind is the organizational needs goals and realities.The employee who is to a lower place dressing should set priorities that is, on which area he should work first, as per the need of his organization. If all these matter would be taken into consideration thence without any doubt he would develop himself his abilities, his sense of responsibility, knowledge, skill and would accomplish his goals. list Problem Areas In this step we would identify those areas in which work have got to be done. After the problem is ident ified specific stem has to be applied. This will of course require detailed investigation and analysis.Identify Appropriate Solutions In this last step after solution have been applied to the specific problems, still as it is there is more elbow room for improvement. It is important to move people into new direct to explore more and to improve. thither are specific research centers like the societys career development program provides awards intended to meet the specific needs of investigators at different states in their research careers. Thus, a lot of hike is given to all those people under training, so as to boost them get good results. Essential ComponentsThe oxford English dictionary says Ones careers are ones course or progress by life. This basically means that as an individual keeps on progressing and making himself better, done gaining more knowledge and information he keeps on improving with time and practice to improve there are self development tools. egotism Ass essment Know body know you as thoroughly as you know yourself. So as it is that the person under training should assess himself that what kind of training he should take or what kind of training would help to make his career develop and prosper.He should take care of his weak points and should develop his strengths. It is very curtail that counseling should be done by an expert advisor to the trainee. This way the trainee would be sure as to which way he has to go. There are also internal cranch marketing and many more components. Pro and Cons There are advantages as well as certain disadvantages of getting into career programming. The good points are that after a certain period of time with a lot of hard work and labor the organization would gain good profits. There are certain disadvantages as well like it is very.Time down it involves a lot of time, labor and money which would otherwise be played out elsewhere in the company. Conclusion There is a well full connection between the organizational development and career development. As we know that a lot of individuals make is going to go under training gains knowledge develop his skill and abilities. Eventually he would perform well in that organization and because of him the company would make a lot of profits there he would certainly be rewarded. Thus his way he would also develop his career and this would certainly be a good start in his life.Referencehttp//

How Do Social Networks Affect Secondary Student Education? Essay

Looking at most students, we drop changed since the commencement of cc0. We sightt live with erupt mixer networks it has call on a sidetrack of our daily routine. Online friendly media sites flip gained gentlemans gentlemanwide growth and popularity, which has led to attracting management from a variety of global searches. Secondary students consumption well-disposed networks as a mode to communicate and find answers and instruction about everything. concord to current various research studies, it has been revealed that in modern society social networks such(prenominal) as Facebook, Instagram, and Whatsapp have become issues to irregularary students they print students wellness and writ of execution at school, reduce their free m, keep them away from the family, have a bad influence, grammatically change them, and leave open to cyber-bullying.As the schoolsonish generation tends to overleap many hours on social networks, they snuff it less time on education. Ho wever, education is an essential part of an separates life. For every youngr, education should be the most important thing. Today, teenagers march much interest in exploitation social networks, but, unfortunately, social networks affect education in a negative way (Kuppuswamy, Narayan 67). amicable networks twat the total attention and concentration of the students and divert them towards non-educational, unethical and inappropriate actions such as mapless chatting, wasting time by random look for and not doing their homework. Students are overly not able to get disembarrass of this addiction during tantalize hours therefore, their concentration decreases and this negatively affects their ability to learn sunrise(prenominal) topics. fit to Daily Mail, Experts have confirmed what parents and teachers already feared youngsters who theatrical role Facebook do worse on exams (Clarke 1).The usage of social networks among younger children is high and evolution rapidly. The research showed that 68% of students who used Facebook had a signifi squeeze outtly lower grade point average (Clarke 1). Moreover, Facebook rituals such as liking pictures, poking other users and adding applications, base forget up hours of study time (Clarke 1). According to other visual modalitys, theuse of smartphones to assenting social network sites during class does not only affect students concentration, it alike distracts students from listening and memorizing important information. Inevitably, their exam results fall dramatically. In The extend to of peregrine scream Usage on Student Learning, Scott Titsworth and Jeffrey Kuznekoff have shared their scene results. In their sentiment, there are three student meetings.The archetypical grouping is the control group, who are banned from utilise their b risk of exposure phones during lecture hour. The second group is more(prenominal) free in employ of their mobile phones than the first group. The third group, c alled the high-distraction group, is totally free to use their mobile phones during lessons. According to survey results, the control group is the most successful in exams, their free forswear and note details are much better than other groups. The high-distraction group is the worst in all of the areas.Their short-time memories were affected negatively be possess of their use of the mobile phones (233). In Negative Effects of tender Networking Sites for Students, Steve Armstrong writes Students today have begun to swan on the accessibility of information that is available on the social media platforms specifically as well as the web in general in order to get answers. This means that there is a reduced contract on learning as well as on retaining information (Armstrong 1). As a result usage of mobile phone during lecture hours has a signifi washbasint effect on students exam results and memory.Similarly, social networking can preserve health. One of the biggest jobs is that the phone and data processor screens have been proven to cause eyestrain, spark advance to poor eyesight. The little movement, when they are staring at a screen has been proven to lead to muscle weakness, less muscle phy lumberenesis and, in some cases, bone loss. A number of studies have comprise characteristics of social networks to be strongly associated with health outcomes for a range of personal and psychiatric conditions, and even with mortality rates (Salzinger, Antrobus, and Hammer 2). To prove this statement, instantly lots of teenagers are wearing glasses or contact lenses.That tells me that using social networks when its not needed, may lead you for a health problems. An article titled Are sociable Networking Sites Turning Teens into Substance Abusers? tells the reviewer statistics about how much more likely teenagers are to drink or smoke after being on social networkingsites. teens that use Facebook on a daily basis are three times more likely to drink alcohol an d twice as likely to use marijuana than those who do not use Facebook (Jaslow part 2). Moreover, an article called The impact of Social Media on Children states that the likelihood of children who use social network often, can increase their chances of them getting in trouble or becoming gloomy (Gwenn, Clarke-Pearson 1).Social networks like Facebook have a large impact on secondary students, often causing depression. The Telegraph reported a survey that found out that 53 percent of participants said social media sites had changed their expression, small-arm 51 percent of these said the change had been negative. Furthermore, two thirds of participants have difficulty relaxing and sleeping after using websites, while 55 percent felt worried and uncomfortable when they are unable to log onto their social media accounts (Dunneli 1). As well as that, 28 percent of young Facebook users, uses it all the time.Along with those problems, social media bullying has been consistent problem fo r teenagers. Since the increase in the usage of social network, it has become easier for people to nates one another. Prospective problems such as cyber bullying, sexting and inappropriate behavior can occur without the appropriate monitoring by parents and the lack of regulation associated with todays youth and young individuals. Sexting occurs among the teen population a late survey revealed, 20% of teens have sent or posted nude sculpture or seminude photographs or videos of themselves (National exertion to Prevent Teen and unk promptlyledgeable Pregnancy 1). Severe, frequent cyber bullying can leave both victims and bullies at greater risk for anxiety, depression, and other tenor related disorders (Cyberbullying 1). The most joint form of cyber bullying is through messages on platforms such as Facebook and chirrup and instant messaging (Cyber-bullying 1).In some rare but super publicized cases, some kids have turned to self-destruction. (Cyberbullying 1). For example, a few eld ago a girl named Amanda Todd was cyber-bullied, which caused her to commit suicide. Before her death, she posted a video where she told how she was blackmailed into exposing herself online. After pictures were posted on Facebook, an online bullying campaign began and the 15 years old girl eventually committed a suicide (Six Unforgettable CyberBullying Cases 1). another(prenominal) example is the story about Megan Meier. She struggled withattention dearth disorder and depression in addiction to issues with her metric w octet unit. About a hebdomad before her death, a boy named Josh Evans asked Megan to be friends on the social network, MySpace.They began to communicate regularly, although they never met each other. Megan had a lifelong struggle with weight and self-esteem, Tina said on the Foundation website. And now she finally had a boy who she thought really thought she was pretty. However, after Josh didnt demand to be friends with her and become more cruel by telling her The world would be a better place without you. The cyber bullying increased when her classmates and friends on MySpace began writing bad messages. Megan couldnt read it all and went to her room, leaving her computer opened and hanged herself in her bedroom closet. She died three weeks before her 14th birthday (Six Unforgettable CyberBullying Cases 1).Correspondingly to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people with approximately 4,400 deaths every year. many a(prenominal) individuals feel that they cannot handle the impact of being bullied on social media and the stress related to it. Social media bullying energises people feel helpless and increases the risk of individuals who are being bullied to feel as if they will be the dress down of the school or town. Bullying for the most part has been a invariable problem in society. Parents need to educate their children on safer ways to use social media platfo rms in order to potentially avoid the blitz that is now referred to as social media bullying.Correspondingly, social media influences teenagers greatly. For example, lets take teenage girls they believe that to exemplify beauty, you have to be thin like a model, as well as that advertisements encourage them what to wear or how to look. Another example is that media sites display multiple advertisements such as banner ads and behavior ads that influence teenagers by showing bad example such as smoking, drinking alcohol and using drugs. There are lots of social networks that operate by gathering information on the person and make them buy a product or use it. Such efficacious influences start as soon as children begin to go online (Wilcox, Kunkel, Cantor, Dowrick, Linn, Palmer 2-3).In the same way, social media affect teenagers grammar. Grammar structures, syntax, proper recite are replaced by easier type of words, which are called slang. Teens have become quite adept at both thumbi ng and writing improper school text where after they start to use it everywhere, even in their school assignments. intimacy of grammar and spelling is lost and this degradation negatively affects students study. The researchers of New Media & Society passed out a survey that asked students to detail their texting habits, such as how many texts they get out and receive, as well as their opinion on the importance of texting. The researchers too asked participants to note the number of adaptations in their last three sent and acquire text messages. Of the 542 surveys distributed, students completed and returned 228, or 42.1 percent (Matt Swayne, and Andrea Elyse Messer).Usually, when work is done, most teenagers spend their time online, chatting with friends or still scrolling down the news feed alternatively than do something helpful or getting enough sleep. As the research showed the average teenager gets just seven-and-a-half hours sleep a night, despite needing eight to ten hours.(Carey 1). According to the Sleep Foundation, as many as 65 percent of children are estimated to suffer from significant sleep deprivation. Hundreds of thousands of children here also have sleep disorders, including insomnia. By the time these children are in their teens, using smartphones and tablets into the early hours has become so established that it has its own name, vamping, named after the insipid vampires who never sleep in the Twilight books and films (Carey 1).Social researcher Danah Boyd, antecedent of the book Its Complicated The Social Lives Of Networked Teens, says that young people would kinda be chronically tired and resort to subterfuge than give up what they regard as me time late at night (Carey 1).The vampire CHILDREN article showed and an example of a girl who spends her free time using social networks. I snap really easily. My patience disappears and I just want everything on the spot, she says, I stay up until the messages stop. Then I see the time a nd panic that Ive got to get up soon. being addicted to the social network can be one of the problems too. According to the working capital Post, 14-year old Ben Knight was asked about how he spends his time From the time I get home until I go tobed, Im usually on my computer (Ahuja 1). As stated by the means of Labor Statistics 2011 American Time use of goods and services evaluate, high school students fagged on average less than an hour per weekday on sports, exercise and recreation (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 1).Although many people around the world use social networking, it should only be used as a tool. Social networking aids long distance converse greatly, but there essential be a stopping point. It cannot become our main form of communication and interaction. If we continue overusing these sites, then it will keep affecting our communication, self-expression, bullying, health, friendship and performance at school, grammar and influence in negative ways. There is nothing that can substitute for personal interaction. Social networking is the problem and we must eliminate its utilize by finding hobby or something that you are interested in. schedule more quality time away from technology driven activities. lead CitedArmstrong, Steve. Negative Effects of Social Networking Sites for Students. Performancing (2012). 25 Mr.2015 American Time Use Survey Summary. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 18 June 2014. Web. 03 Mar. 2015. Cyberbullying. KidsHealth the Webs approximately Visited Site about Childrens Health. Ed. Larissa Hirsch. The Nemours Foundation, 01 June 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. Craig Smith. By the Numbers 200+ Amazing Facebook Users Statistics. Expanded Ramblings. DMR, 6 Apr. 2015. Web. 16 Apr. 2015 Cyber-Bullying. What Is Social Networking -. Social Networking, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2015. Jaslow, Ryan. Are social networking sites turning teens into substance abusers? HealthPop CBS News. Breaking News Headlines Business, delight & World News CBS News, 26 Aug.2011. Web. 14 March 2015. Gwenn Schurgin OKeeffe MD, and Kathleen Clarke-Pearson MD. The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Familie. The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families. The American academy of Pediatrics, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2015. Kunkel D, Wilcox BL, Cantor J, Palmer E, Linn S, Dowrick P. Report of the APA Task Force on advertize and Children. Section psychological aspects of commercialization of childhood. February 2004. 25 Mar.2015 Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H., and Scott Titsworth. The Impact of Mobile Phone Usage on Student Learning. Communication Education. Routledge,12 Feb. 2013. Web. 16 Mar. 2015. Laura Clarke. F Grade for Facebook Students Who Spend Too Much Time on Social Networks Falling Behind in School. Daily Mail (London), 13 Apr. 2009. Web. 09 Mar. 2015. Laura Dunneli. Facebook and peep Feed Anxiety, Study Finds. The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 8 July 2012. Web. 23 Mar. 2015. Masuma Ahuja. Teens A re disbursal More Time Consuming Media, on Mobile Devices. Washington Post. The Washington Post, 13 Mar. 2013. Web. 26 Feb. 2015. Matt Swayne, and Andrea Elyse Messer. No LOL Matter Tween Texting May breath to Poor Grammar Skills Penn State University. Penn State News, 25 July 2012. Web. 11 Apr. 2015. National Campaign to Prevent Teen and chance(prenominal) Pregnancy. Sex and Tech Results of a Survey of Teens and Young Adults. Washington, DC National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy 2008. 25 Mar.2015 S. Kuppuswamy, P. B. Shankar Narayan, The Impact of Social Networking Websites on the Education of juvenility, In International Journal of Virtual Communities and Social Networking, Vol. 2, Issue 1, rascal 67-79, January-March 2010. 15 Mar. 2015 Suzanne Salzinger, John Antrobus, and Muriel Hammer. The First Compendium of Social Network explore Focusing on Children and Young Adult. Google Books. New York State Psychiatric Institute, 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2015. Six Unf orgettable CyberBullying Cases. NoBullyingExpert Advice on Bullying Cyber Bullying. No Bullying, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. Tanith Carey. The vampire CHILDREN Hooked on IPads and Mobiles Late into the Night, They Hardly Sleep. Here Experts Reveal the fright Toll on the Generation Dubbed. ..I Can Be on Social Networks until 3am. I Look at the Screens So Much My Eyes tan and I Get Headaches. Daily Mail (London), 12 Feb. 2015. Web. 09 Mar. 2015.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Personal Reflection Essay

This radiateion leave alone hold forth individualal modesty and how it has influenced my academic studies, including my devote inside billet settings. Gibbs broody cycle (Gibbs, 1998) has been utilised as it illustrates a clear structure for the shape of reflection. To conclude this reflection will draw together the themes which have emerged and suck up a clear action for prospective learning that will be used in order to enhance my rising practice.Within my preceding occupation as a health c atomic number 18 serviceant I was subject to workplace bulling which was al wretcheded to continue for an extensive period of time imput open to ineffective management of the situation. Vartia (2001, p. 68) suggests that one of the consequences for the targets of workplace bulling is a feeling of low ego self-reliance. This is indeed true of myself although this occurred prior to commencement of university, I descry that I am uncertain stemming from this experience.This diffid ence has influenced my academic studies and my practice upon placement. Feelings I feel that I image it challenging to settle down indoors new stems of people. Whilst on placement I feel it takes a monumental amount of time to work within my fullest mental ability within the team. collaborator (2008, p. 21) state that entering a new placement area mountain be a daunting experience suggesting this may be because you are joining a team of strangers who already know each other. even I feel that my previous experience has heightened my apprehension and indeed bachelor and Grant (2009) suggest past experience contributes to our attitudes and values and affects what we notice somewhat other peoples behaviour and how we interpret it. Therefore I may unexpectedly be vigilant for behaviour that represents past experience. I feel I become emotive when conflict arises both upon placement and within the university environment thus I have a tendency to avoid sources of conflict. what is more although I am aware of the need to challenge poor practice witnessed and have done so within the past it is something that I find particularly challenging and ill at ease(predicate) to deal with. I find it uncomfortable to challenge people because I dig this as a negatively charged source of conflict. I am somewhat afr avail of the reactions this may educe and the impact this could have on my working relationships within the team I am placed.Within my academic studies in the university learning environment specifically this diffidence has manifested as an apprehension of oral presentation within groups. This is especially obvious when it is required to perform group presentations. Although my one to one conversation and communication within familiar groups is of good quality, communication within unfamiliar groups preserve be hindered by this diffidence. I am concerned that if allowed to continue diffidence could be detrimental to my future practice as a nurse.Hagbagh ery et (2004) soft research findings suggest that nurses perceive competence and self confidence as the most of the essence(p) personal factors influencing nurses clinical decision making, thereof in order to enhance my future practice I feel that it is irresponsible that I overcome this. Evaluation Upon evaluation of these feelings I perceive I have progressed and gained confidence thus far, moreover there is still delimitation for improvement. I feel that upon a recent eight week placement period whereby I moved across four placement settings I had an abundance of practice within adapting and participating within new teams.Although I felt that transition across four settings somewhat hindered myself working to my fullest capacity the positive aspect of this was that it facilitated gain in self confidence. Nash, Lemcke and Sacre (2008) suggest that initially when encountering a new workplace culture trying to be current within this new culture provoke be uncomforting and le ad to feelings of want however by the end of this eight week period I feel I gained a significant amount of self confidence and I felt confident with my ability to integrate into new teams effectively. confabulation is the interaction with people and is at the core of nursing according to McCabe and Timmins (2006, p. 4), therefore I acknowledge that in order to work to my fullest capacity within the nursing profession it is imperative I overcome this apprehension of speaking within groups and performing presentations. I have reflected upon previous experiences within university separate performing our first group presentation to a recent group presentation experience. I perceive a vast improvement however again there is still margin for improvement and gain in confidence.Brankenbridge and Blows (2008, p. 216) have highlighted that there are different ways in which you can challenge, constructive and destructive. Constructive challenges highlight alternatives and leave the person w ith something of which they can reflect upon, build upon and change. Destructive challenges are delivered in an unskilful fashion leaving the person who has been challenged feeling put down and bad and potentially could be a source of conflict and negative feeling.This is why in the past I have perceived challenging people in practice as a negative action, possibly due to lacking differentiation mingled with destructive and constructive criticism. Analysis Although I perceive myself as diffident upon analysis I am unaware of how others may perceive my self. fit to Barber, McLaughlin and wood (2009, p. 76) The Johari Window Luft and Ingham (1955) can show us aspects of ourselves that we believe is how others perceive us, however they move on suggest that these aspects may only be a small part of our personality as a whole and not necessarily how others perceive ourselves.Which means although I perceive myself as diffident others may not necessarily perceive my self in this way o f life and it is natively requirement that I develop further self awareness. Barber, McLaughlin and Wood (2009, p. 76) perceive development of self awareness as crucial in highlighting how we view and reply to others and in turn how they view and respond to us. The National Health Service (NHS) Modernisation Agency Leadership meaning (2005) have corroborated this view by suggesting self awareness can assist with understanding ones own emotions and the impact of ones behaviour on others.Therefore one of the many benefits of self awareness for myself may be understanding my colleagues, learning to relax, identifying my strengths and weaknesses and indentifying my own learning needs, Burnard (1997). I perceive self-assertiveness of which Siviter (2008, p. 116) defines as respecting the rights and feelings of others whilst standing up for yourself and your own rights as a necessary skill which will further facilitate a gain in self confidence. In order to be assertive it is necessa ry to give birth the ability to express your feelings in a direct, open, honest and appropriate manner.Breckenbridge and Blows (2008, p. 217) further suggest that assertive communication is the key to successful relationships for patients, family, nurses and colleagues alike therefore further development of my assertive communication skills will enhance my future practice and communication with staff, family and patients alike. Development of assertive communication skills may aid when and if the need arises in future practice to challenge colleagues actions or the actions of people in general.Indeed Breckenridge and Blows (2008, p. 17) suggest assertiveness is a key feature within effective challenging and therefore is an essential skill of which is required to be developed. Assertiveness aids conveyance of important messages and helps individuals stand up for the rights of themselves and others one example of such being advocacy. advocacy is reflected within The code in full (Nu rsing and Midwifery Council, 2008) who state that nurses moldiness act as an advocate for those within their care. Therefore learning to be assertive is not a choice, it is a must if I am to live up to what is expected of me within my role as a student and future nurse.Conclusion and Action Plan The challenge for the future is that I totally overcome this diffidence. I envisage being able to achieve by developing self awareness. I could develop self awareness by using a tool such as The Johari Window. Academically the challenge is to overcome apprehension regarding communication with unfamiliar groups of colleagues. I anticipate achieving this by taking more time to consider what I am going to before I begin and being inclined(p) for situations where I am required to speak. With regard to performing presentations I will be prepared and rehearse what I am going to articulate in advance.

United States Coast Guard

The last ten years has seen substantial changes in the ways the oceans are cosmos used. Incidences of import, piracy, illegal immigration and the growth in global terrorist act move over risen dramatically. This report studies how the lineament of the get together States glide restrain has been refined to deal with these issues and, in position, their youthfully exclamatory role in aegis. We look at the key issues facing this force, which take the recently formed Homeland Security project and evaluate their activities in the fight against act of terrorism and use in foreign campaigns.Our conclusion is that in that location has been a significant change in the slideway safe-conduct role only if that this is a necessary response to the changing face of villainy and terrorism on the oceans. fall in States Coast Guard Their Role in Border Security What is the role of the U. S. Coast Guard in term of take a hop security and how does it carry out that role? This is t he question that we shall be studying at heart this report. Having studied and reoceanrched we the changes to the Coast Guards mission and, in fateicular the reasons and causes that pull in led to their current role in and duties with regard to border security.Amongst the oldest government organization, the U. S. Coast Guard was formed originally under the advert of Revenue Marine. Its history dates back to 1740. Initially its main assign was collecting revenue for the government and to stop smuggling. Over the years its duties and responsibilities take a leak expanded to allow in assisting in distress and rescue, dealing with incidence of thraldom and charting the coastline. Before the U. S. navy blue was formed in 1798, it withal was the simply seabourne-armed force.Over recent years it has become sort of the Department of Homeland, were it is responsible for enforcing the nations laws of the sea and ensuring safety of both vessels and persons. However in wartime its line of command transfers right to the Navy Department. (United States Coast Guard, website 2006). The growing globalization in terms of politics and technical messageization has brought with it an international expansion of crime and terrorist groups.In recent times the Coast Guards role has changed to meet this, with an increased focus on a number of key security areas including smuggling, illegal immigration and, more importantly, the perceived and actual threat from terrorism. As Admiral Allen (2006) points out in his disceptation on the Coast Guard website, this change is an ongoing situation and they set out to remain flexible in their approach to maintain a absolute and impressive proactive and reactionary response to the constantly changing demands of the issues within their remit.Within this document we are concentrating upon four key issues, theft and smuggling, illegal immigration, terrorism and a brief look at the serve well they have provided foreign. theft an d Smuggling Since the first moment homosexual beings invented a form of sea transport, at that place have been those who have seen and seized the opportunity for ill-gotten gains. Indeed, as antecedent stated, smuggling was one of the original reasons for the formation of the Coast Guard.Due to the vast coastline enjoyed by the United States, theft, smuggling and the labour of its prevention, has always played an important part of the Coast Guard duty. With the increase in globalization smuggling of commercial goods has become a more significant line of work. It has been reported that the theft of trade cargo in the United States is a staggering $25 million a year, fifty percent of the universe of discourses total thefts. The lose revenue from smuggled cigarettes alone is estimated to cost the U. S. approaching $2 billion.The problem is exacerbated by the diverse nature of the groups and syndicate behind the thefts. These not only include local geographical groups such as t he Los Angeles street gangs, but those from South America, the Orient and, with the democratization of frequently of the Eastern Bloc countries, Russian Crime gangs as well. (Mario Possamai 2001) In improver to the theft, the Coast Guards also have to deal with the growing problem of shape branded merchandise, among the most general of which are computer software, fashion goods and cosmetics.With the increase in skills and technology in Asia, the Far East and opposite nations, there has been a proliferation of the importation of counterfeit products and the modern quality of reproduction is so high school that detection is bonnie more and more difficult. It is estimated that the cost to United States industry from this source was in the region of $200 million per annum in 2001 and the figure has grown steady from then. The following (figure 1) shows the total number of intellectual property right seizures for the basketball team years to 2000. Table 1 Mario Possamai (2001)By far the worse incidence of smuggling is that involving drugs, across the whole spectrum of the industry. Globally this is adding to the pressures of addiction and some some other, including drug related problem, and in the United States, due to the sheer size of population it is an extremely capacious and difficult problem to deal with. This is one particular area where the Coast Guard can be particularly pleased with their efforts as there seizures during 2002 accounted for 52% of all government seizures in that year, and took off the streets drugs estimated to have a retail value of nearly $4 billion.Another area of responsibility, which because of their more high profile activities, tends to be somewhat overlooked, is the Coast Guards responsibility for protecting their nations piscary industry. With falling stocks world-wide, illegal fishing and theft of catches is on the increase, and the U. S. has not been resistant from this problem. Illegal Immigration Although an inte gral part of the fight against smuggling, because of its human connotations, the part of the trade involving illegal immigrants has taken on a anomalous significance of its own.As a result of its super-power status and the world-wide held perception that the United States is the wealthiest country, it acts as a magnet for people from poorer nations wishing to improve their fortunes and, as a result of this there has followed a growth of crime syndicates who mould in this area, seizing the opportunity for substantial financial rewards. Such gangs have used the income generated to form themselves into extremely well organized, sophisticated and effective organizations.Although the influx of illegal immigrants is a national problem, with the longest border between the worlds richest nation and one of the poorer being the U. S. Mexico divide, by far the largest denseness of activity takes place in this area. The efficiency of the operating gangs and syndicates operating in this busin ess serves to tax the Coast Guards capability to the limit. Many believe that, partly as a result of the demands placed upon it in terms of other security duties, the Coast Guard is failing to win this particular struggle.In his book, putz Andreas (2001) observes that, despite setting up a military type mathematical process in order to concentrate the efforts of border enforcement this 1990s initiative is not achieving its target, which is to reaffirm control over the area. terrorism Since the dramatic and catastrophic results of the phratry 9/11 bams, the Coast Guard has been charged with the additional responsibilities of focusing a reasonable amount of resources to the fight against terrorism. Their duties and responsibilities here are to correspond the United States against any repetition of the September 11th tragedies.(Carolyn and Kit Bonner 2004) condescension the fact that that particular attack was airborne in nature, a seabourne attack is all too possible. For exam ple it is estimated, although as a result of the problems regard with ascertaining positive evidence, that Al Qaeda has an operating fleet of between 15 and 300 vessels. It is already suspected that this terrorist group have been responsible for at least two major seabourne attacks on other vessels, Dr John Daly (2003), distributively capable of inflicting massive damage on United States seaways or rake of weapons of mass destruction through its ports.Following on from the successes of Al Qaeda, the fear is that other international terrorist groups will consider this method as an extension to their stock-taking of effective attacks against the U. S. In John Leanings report (2001), the Coast Guard stated that the value was operating on a much higher state of security alert, even to the extent of preventing public admission price to facilities that, pre 9/11 would have welcomed them. The terrorist threat is not only dependant to groups like Al Qaeda, but can be extended to incl ude those countries with which the United States have serious disputes such as Iran and the insurgents in Iraq.Services overseas Despite being primarily a service dedicated to the guard of its nations own shores and waters, the United States Coast Guard, have ventured further a field when there is a need to and duty calls. In addition it has also worked in collaboration with other nations in the pursuance of its security obligations. With regard to the latter, the recent joint operation with Canada is a case in point. Here the two Coast Guard service worked in unity on a regular basis. This cooperation has extended along both the Atlantic and Pacific coastlines and other mutually important stretches of seaway and lakes.Both of the participating services have said that this operation has been of great value to them and that they have learnt a lot from working together, all of which they hope to put towards their joint and someone security role programs. As a trial operation it was a success in terms of showing how such cooperation could be an effective weapon in the fight against any security incident that arises on the high seas. (Phil Jenkins 2005) Service in Iraq. In addition to working with dwell countries the U. S. Coast Guard has also been called into action with security conflicts in other parts of the world.The most important of these, and certainly the one with the highest profile, occurred during the recent midriff East conflicts with the Gulf Wars. Working under the jurisdiction of the Navy department, it was part of the Coast Guards responsibilities to guard and protect the oil terminals from attack, a duty that has also become part of their responsibilities in their homeland. With the United States Navy occupied in more direct action in the Middle East trading operations of war, it was a huge responsibility for the service. ConclusionAs our research has shown, the United States Coast Guard has an extremely important role to play in the area o f security. This responsibility stretches across the whole spectrum of the American way of life. In protecting the countries commercial organizations from the effects of mechanized theft and incidences of counterfeiting it is contributing to the safeguard of the economic position. With its actions against smuggling, and in particular the human kind, its job it to protect the social conditions and human rights, not only of its own citizens, but also of many of those who are being smuggled into the country.However, by far the most important role that the service plays at this moment in time relates to its activities in the field of terrorism. The attacks of 9/11 graphically showed the scale of human lives that can be muddled and the significant damage to the nations info structure and the affect on a nations moral that such an incidence can have. This task is taking on e real increasing importance as both the growth of terrorist groups, and of unfit nations access to nuclear facilit ies, grows. The difficulties that face both the Coast Guard service and the U.S. government that operates it, is one of funding, facilities and deployment. With terrorists seeming to possess almost unlimited gold just who much of the nations taxes should be committed to this area of operations. Whilst the nation is very conscious of the need for it, there is a limit to the amount that a citizen either can or is willing to invest. Even with the funds available, there comes next the problem of exactly what facilities should those funds be utilized for. Seabourne terrorism is not the only concern.There are other forms of terrorism that need apology and need funds as has been clearly demonstrated. Added to this is the almost unworkable task of deployment. The United States has such a large expanse of coastline that it would be impossible to cover that area effectively. With the fiscal restraints, together with the limitations in terms of manpower, equipment and other resources, the U nited States Coast Guard services perform their remit with a great deal of efficiency and, despite isolated incidences of failure, not inconsiderable success. ReferencesAllen, Admiral Thad. (May 2006). Commandants intent. Retrieved from http//www. uscg. mil/USCG. shtm. Andreas Peter. (2001). Border Games Policing the U. S. Mexico Divide. Cornell University Press. Collins, T (Forward). Bonner, Carolyn & Kit. (2004) Always Ready straight offs US Coast Guard. Motorbooks International, Powerpro series. Daly, Dr John, C, Kay. (2003) Al Qaeda and Maritime Terrorism Part 1, The Jameson Institute, Terrorism Monitor Jenkins, Phil. (2005). U. S. and Canadian Coast Guards working together to spike partnerships. CNN News release.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Arizona vs Grant Case

On August 25, 1999, acting on an anonymous tip that the residency at 2524 North Walnut Avenue was being apply to machinery drugs Tucson police force officeholders Griffith and Reed knocked on the front limen and asked to speak to the owner. Gant answered the door and, after identifying himself stated that he expected the owner to return later. The police officers go forth the residence and breedinged a records check, which revealed that Gants drivers license had been hang and there was an outstanding second for his point for driving with a hang up license.When the officers returned to the house that evening they found a earthly concern near the gage of the house and a woman in a gondola machine park in front of it. After a third officer arrived they throwed the man for providing a false name and the woman for possessing drug paraphernalia. Both arrestees were handcuffed and secured in separate guard cars when Gant arrived. The officers recognized his car as it ent ered the drive and officer Griffith confirmed that Gant was the driver by shining a flashlight into the car as it drove by him. Gant parked at the end of the driveway got out of his car and shut the door.Griffith who was about 30 feet away called to Gant, and they approached separately new(prenominal)wise(a) meeting 10 to 12 feet from Gants car. Griffith immediately arrested Gant and handcuffed him. Be unmingled motion the other arrestees were secured in the only patrol cars at the scene Griffith called for backup. When two more than officers arrived they locked Gant in the backseat of their vehicle. After Gant had been handcuffed and placed in the back of a patrol car two officers attempted his car One of them found a particle accelerator and the other discovered a bag of cocaine in the bag of a jacket on the backseat.Gant was charged with two curses possession of a narcotic drug for sale and possession of drug paraphernalia the waxy bag in which the cocaine was foun d He moved to annihilate the inference seized from his car on the ground that the mugless see violated the ordinal Amendment Among other things Gant argued that Belton did non authorize the explore of his vehicle be behave he comprise no threat to the officers after he was handcuffed in the patrol car and because he was arrested for a traffic offense for which no evidence could be found in his vehicle.I think that to better prepare for such(prenominal) an inquiry officers should focus on articulating the middlingness of any such hunt based on the following facts and circumstances (1) Distance The distance amid the arrestee and the place to be searched. 2) Restraints Whether the arrestee was handcuffed or otherwise restrained what kind of Restraints were used and whether the arrestee was handcuffed in the front or back (3) Display of guns or other weapons by officers Whether the police had weapons drawn or pointed at the arrestee or other suspects (4) Positioning Whether the police were positioned so as to block the arrestee suspects and bystanders from the vault of heaven to be searched. (5) Access The ease of access to the area or container itself to include whether a container is open or closed locked or unlocked. 6) Numbers The number of officers leave versus the number of arrestees, suspects, or bystanders. (7) Arrestees conduct Attempts made by the suspect before during, or after the arrest to access the area to be searched. (8) Reasonable change in circumstances Do police select to move the arrestee away from a dangerous environment into another reclusive area or groundwork police articulate a lawfulnessful need to retrieve something such as the arrestees shoes or clothing?Searches of a Vehicle Following Arrest of an Occupant or Recent Occupant Two Potential Justifications Arrestee could access the vehicle Gant held that police great power search a vehicle concomitant to arrest when the arrestee an house physician or recent occupant of the vehicle is unsecured and within reach distance of the rider compartment at the time of the search. The royal court noted, It allow be the rare case in which an officer is unable to fully ensnare an arrest so that a real possibility of access to the arrestees vehicle remains. In such a rare case in time an SIA of the passenger compartment would be just under the Fourth Amendment.Since Chimel justifies this search officers whitethorn search for weapons any evidence of any crime and means of escape. annoyance related evidence skill be in the vehicle. Even if the arrestee can no longer access the vehicles passenger compartment the Court held that an SIA will also be permitted when it is reasonable to trust evidence pertinent to the crime of arrest skill be found in the vehicle. In many cases, such as arrests for traffic violations or outstanding arrest warrants there will be no reasonable basis to cogitate that the vehicle contains relevant evidence of the crime.In ot her cases however such as arrests for possession of controlled substances the basis of the arrest will supply an pleasing rationale for meddling the arrestees passenger compartment and any containers inside. In a case where the search is justified by the possibility of locating offense related evidence in the vehicle officers are limited to searching only those places in the passenger compartment where the offense related evidence might be located. How to define the reasonable to believe standard? Is it the same as probable cause or is it something less?One must liken the search incident to arrest excommunication in Gant to another steadfastly established search warrant exception to find the most apparent answer. In U. S. v. Carroll the supreme Court established the mobile conveyance exception to the Fourth Amendment search warrant requirement. under this exception an officer may search a readily mobile conveyance without a warrant upon probable cause that it contains evide nce or contraband. Once this standard is met the officer may search any area of the vehicle to include the luggage compartment compartment if that area may contain the objects of the search.The rule in a Gant search incident to arrest however first requires a lawful tutelary arrest of an occupant or recent occupant of a vehicle. A search of the passenger compartment incident to arrest is then justified by a reasonable belief that evidence of the crime of arrest might be in the car. If Gants reasonable to believe standard is bear upon to probable cause then the Court has created an M. C. Escher-like puzzle. An officer who has made a custodial arrest and has a reasonable belief equald to probable cause that evidence of the crime of arrest might be in the car could search only the passenger compartment.An officer who has made no arrest but has probable cause to believe that evidence of any crime is in the car could search the entire vehicle. In other wrangling the officer who meet s the higher standard custodial arrest probable cause for particular evidence gets to search less but the officer who meets the lesser standard probable cause for any evidence can search more. At best the Court would have created a new search warrant exception that is instantly swallowed by another that has existed for almost 85 years. The better explanation is that reasonable means. easonable. There is no need to equate reasonable to believe to a percentage or particular train of probability in fact the Supreme Court has stated the examination of reasonableness under the Fourth Amendment is not capable of precise interpretation or mechanical application. preferably as in issues regarding an officers use of force the proper application of the reasonableness standard requires calculated attention to the facts and circumstances of each particular case and must be judged from the perspective of a reasonable officer on the scene.The ultimate unbelief should be whether another reas onable officer if confronted with the same facts and circumstances could believe that evidence of the arrestees crime might be found in the vehicle the arrestee recently occupied. Facts and circumstances leading to such a reasonable belief will include information about the offense and the wrongdoer the age of the information the nature of the crime at issue the demeanor of the arrestee before during and after the arrest ownership and control of the vehicle and results of mocking arrestees and occupants.The Court did not expound upon why it believed vehicles to be special in this context but Justice Scalias concurrence in Thornton from which the terminology was taken reminds us that motor vehicles are a category of do which give rise to a reduced expectation of privacy and heightened law enforcement needs. Therefore it appears as though officers may not justify a search of an arrestees non vehicular lunging area based upon a reasonable belief that evidence of his crime might be found therein.Rather they will have to articulate reason to believe that the arrestee could access the area at the time of the search. Other Vehicle Search Exceptions Remain functional If an officer cannot justify a search of a vehicle incident to arrest under Gant or is uncertain whether an SIA is warranted other established exceptions to the search warrant requirement remain available to safeguard evidence and encourage the safety of officers. 1) If an officer has a reasonable suspicion that a passenger or recent occupant of a vehicle whether arrested or not is dangerous and may gain access to a weapon he may frisk the passenger compartment for weapons This exception is known as a Terry frisk of the vehicle. (2) If the officer has probable cause that the vehicle contains evidence of criminal activity the officer may conduct a organic search of any area of the vehicle in which the evidence might be found.This exception is the aforementioned mobile conveyance exception or the Ca rroll Doctrine. (3) If an officer conducting an arrest reasonably suspects that a dangerous person is hiding in a nearby vehicle he may conduct a protective sweep of the vehicle by looking in places where such a person might be concealed. (4) Consent will always allow an officer to search as long as it is given voluntarily by one with actual or apparent authority to give it and the officer stays within the boundaries of the consent given. 5) Although not permitted for use as a criminal search tool an officer who effects a lawful impound of a vehicle may memorandum its contents in accordance with standardized agency policy. If the inventory is performed lawfully any evidence or contraband identified during the butt on may be seized and used as evidence in a criminal prosecution and may provide justification for another warrant exception. References Law professor Tomkovicz writes brief for case in upcoming Supreme Court term. The Press-Citizen. 2008-09-29. http//www. google. com ht tp//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Arizona_v. _Gant

Larkin’s use of language Essay

The poems that I run done chosen to comment on from the collection The Whitsun Weddings by Philip Larkin are Here, zilch to be said and Faith Healing. I have chosen to pen about these three because they are all very different in terms of theme, voice communication, verse form and Larkins message and purpose. Here is the interruption poem of The Whitsun Weddings. It locates the reader in Larkins England and centres around a transit the protagonist is making from London to Northumberland via Larkins hometown of Hull.Larkin uses a range of language and writing devices to express his feelings and at clippings his prejudices through his poetry and he does this especially well in Here. The prime(prenominal) stanza begins with swerving east. The formulate swerving suggests a dangerous gesture and a lack of witness from the person or thing that is swerving. When someone swerves it is usually to avoid something so by using the word swerving Larkin is immediately presenting the rea der with a sense of avoidance and lack of control.Larkin then goes on to say that the handle are too thin and thistled to be called meadows. This records that he is red ink through an area of land, which cannot sort of be classed as countryside but is not quite urban. This could possibly be a representation of how Larkin is feeling at the time about smell because even the countryside is not genuine therefore Larkin may be commenting on the falsity of life because of its in-between state.The words minute and thistled are harsh becomeing words that make up head rhyme. This head rhyme may have been used to mimic the gentle hissing hearty of the train or can moving along the track or road. The harsh belonging words are probably applied as a vent for Larkins disdain on a philosophical level for the falsity and lack of true meaning in life and on a smaller level for the land he is passing through that is not quite beautiful enough to be countryside.A technique that interests m e is used in the line harsh-named finish. This phrase uses a repetition of the /h/ sound, which is quite a hard sound to adjudicate and therefore in truth encumbrances the readers rhythm. This includes alliteration of the /h/ sound but also a kind of onomatopoeia because the word halt is truly a word that sounds like a stoppage or halt and actively brings the reader to a momentary pause. The word harsh is actually a harsh word, which adds more emphasis to the phrase.This technique is very useful because it immerses the reader in the journey of the protagonist as it actually halts their time period when the protagonists train comes to a halt. Larkin uses a lot of alliteration in Here, an example of this occurs in the first stanza when alliteration occurs four time in the space of two lines Swerving to solitude of skies and scarecrows, haystacks, hares and pheasants. There is a repetition of the word swerving which reiterates the lack of control of the protagonist.It also shows the plowshare of the journey that is taking him through the countryside and he is swerving east outside(a) from the towns and towards the countryside. The repetition of the /s/ hissing sound gives a sense of animate and also replicates the sound of the train or car moving. The /s/ sound runs throughout two lines which links them together and helps demonstrate the onward movement of the protagonist and the passage of time. The actual shape of the letter /s/ is menses and therefore mimics the journey flowing onward.In the last line of the first stanza Larkin describes the entrance to a town by saying the shining gull-marked soil gathers to the surprise of a large town. Gull-marked mud can be used as a comparison to harsh-named halt a a few(prenominal) lines previously and demonstrates the difference between town and country. The comparison between harsh-named halt and gull-marked mud can also be drawn through the dash between the first two words (which could be used to show th e onward motion of the journey) and the alliteration used of the /h/ and /m/ sounds.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

A Prime Innovator of Intelligence

Alfred Binet is atomic number 53 of the most significant figures in psychological science as he redefined the meaning of wisdom. He basic all toldy set a new standard in the study of the human mind with his creation of the IQ test, which basically revolutionized how to gauge a persons intelligence. Even today, several of his major works and ideas are still universe used by modern psychologists.Early Life & EducationAlthough Binet was highly successful in his field, he didnt always thrive well, especially during the early st get ons of his life. He was born in July 8, 1857 in Nice, France (New World Encyclopedia, 2008). His father was a medical student and from here it could be surmised that he was alike meant to pursue a life history in the medical field.However, his parents separated when he was still young and he and his mother relocated to Paris where he attended law school. Upon receiving his permission as a lawyer in 1878, he decided to come in the footsteps of his fath er in the field of medicine but after decided that his interest psychology was more important (Sweet Briar College, 2007).Beginnings & FailuresDespite his contributions to psychology, Binet, ironically, was a not formally-schooled psychologist. He mainly educated himself by studying books of Charles Darwin and caper Stuart wonk, among others, for several years (Indiana University, 2007).He became particularly interested in Mills belief that the processes of intelligence could be expounded by the laws and principles of associationism. However, he soon plump outd the restrictions of this particular theory, but he was still heavily influenced by Mills ideas (Indiana University, 2007).In 1880, Binet published his first paper on hypnosis, which was highly criticized for inadequacy of scientific support (International Bureau of Education, 2000). Subsequently, he began working in Jean-Martin Charcots laboratory, where the main focus of research was hypnosis. Binet was heavily influenc ed by Charcots ideas and as a result, he published four papers on fleshly magnetism and hypnosis.Unfortunately, his Charcots ideas were refuted by various scientific studies and in effect, Binet was also discredited for supporting his teacher, which was considered his first major failure (New World Encyclopedia, 2008). suddenly after abandoning his research on hypnosis, he married Laure Balbiani in 1884 with whom he had two daughters, Madeleine and Alice.Important Contributions & WorksOne of the Binets first significant contributions was his incorporation of deceiver into one of his psychological studies that dealt with the cognition of chess masters. In his experiment, he found turn out that holding was only part of the processes of cognition in the game of chess and that only master chess players could play the game successfully term blindfolded (Internal Bureau of Education, 2000).He further surmised that imagination, memories of abstract, and experience were among the many factors that is required of a chess master. Furthermore, his most significant contribution is the intelligence test. In 1904, Binet and his colleague, Theodore Simon develop a test called New Methods for Diagnosing Idiocy, Imbecility, and Moron Status (Indiana University, 2007).Among the tasks include in the test were to repeat a sequence of numbers from memory and to follow an object with ones eye (Indiana University, 2007). Binet and Simon conducted the test on 50 children who acted according to their jump on or level.They would then compared the results to other children of the like age and evaluate the results. Meaning to say, a 13-year old who could complete the tasks that all 13-years olds performed would have a mental age of 13. Similarly, a 13-year old who would complete all the tasks of a 15-year old would have a mental age of 15 (Indiana University, 2007).In 1908, Simon and Binet modified their intelligence test as they theorized that intelligence increase with age and included a comparison between the chronological age and the mental age in the new test (Indian University, 2007).However, Binet stressed that his intelligence test also had its limits and that human IQ was diverse and had to be assessed qualitatively and not only quantitatively.

Letters to Friend Essay

My host family were consisting of the old lady thats name Peggy and she were hosting ii students before we arrived there. Shes very kind women, Towards the middle of my jump vacation, We were spirit for american richly school for next semester. But poor us, nigh of the schools got fully enrolled for next semester. So we tried to contact the rest of the schools that we knew from our friends, relatives or family. And fin all(prenominal)y we found out that one of the school thats called The newman high school still opening for enroll next semester.Lucky us that Peggy used to be the principle of the language school before, so she suggested us a staggers of stuffs to prepare. We have been going to the News burry street, Havard university as long as I remembered. We know the best places for sight seeing. Where all the best rides , which park is the best. On day though while we were cooking our next trip we decided that which age will we going screen to EF. And we decided to stay i n Boston for four more days in the hotel.It was a wonderful experience that we went there, walking around the metropolis with my friends having just a map in my rucksack. Even though my summertime was loaded with activity, it still seemed like a long break. After expense so much time in Boston, chilling around, and attending a guitar competetion , I felt like I needed more vacation It was a wonderful experience and I learned a lot . This trip gave me an unforgettable impression of Massachussets What about you ? Where did you go on your spring vacation ? Please write soon Yours, Jay

Saturday, February 23, 2019


applied sciences Impact on Communication With parvenu parley engineering being introduced almost daily, the classical definition of how we go along mustiness forever and a day be redefined. Conversations right away exist in a myriad of formats, most of which confuse completely been around for the then(prenominal) 20 grades. Face adequate to(p), Twitter, and various opposite current forms of kindly media at one meter influence how we communicate. neo applied science quips a sterile virtual environment that lacks physical dimensions much(prenominal) as space and time. new-fangled immunization has progressed so much since the ordinal cytosine we now question what Is real human interaction? Medal constantly evolves, which makes studying It difficult. Mass media greatly effects how we embrace other cultures, communities, and ourselves. The craft of the telegraph, telephone, and wireless transformed society In the 1 9th century. The Invention of the cyberspace re moved how humans communicate forever. Un homogeneous the others the earnings has become interwoven into our sleep withs. The designing of smart phones and other meshing capable mobile devices ensures constant connectivity.We ar now connected to Mass Media for the majority of our waking hours. News of earthquakes to warf ars around the earthly concern instantly zaps into our pockets regularly. Media directly influences how we create our profess personal identity operator and how we perceive others. According to Michael Bugged author of Interpersonal Divide, media as yet shapes how we watch our discombobulate got social identity. Constant connectivity gives us the freedom to control where we do our attention. People text and go on their emails during meetings. We use Faceable while emerge with friends.Now we create our own experience editing, deleting, and thus touching our thoughts and Ideas that we sh ar. Faceable and Twitter offer us a wisdom of reality customized to our individual tastes and views. If we dissolve live our lives only paying attention to what we chose to us will well up escape aroundthing important? The novel Interpersonal Divide by Michael Bugged takes a critical analysis of how modern forms of technology acquit eroded our virtuoso of alliance. Budgea ask the question, If electronic communication keeps us wired to the world.Why, then do so umpteen feel displaced in the global village? Modern communication offers such a did array of thingummys, but distances us from our humanity. E. B White, of The New Yorker 1948 Television hangs on the questionable theory that whatsoever happens anyplace should be sensed everywhere. If everyone is going to be able to be chit-chat everything, In the long run all sights may lose whatever rarity value they once possessed, and It may well turn stunned that citizenry, being able to see and hear practically everything, will be specially Interested In almost nothing. White 3) Mass media and its 24-hour intelligence service coverage perpetuate stories from around the world to its unman condition as portrayed by television. Bugged swears overexposure to current forms of media may leave us unsympathetic or uninterested in everything around us. We choose to pass on more time with our electronic devices, and not with each other. Children say, l savour you to there parents through text messages. Bugged believes modern forms of communication have not only changed society, but also us as individuals.The net profit offers us a way of customizing our experience in society, giving us the freedom to choose our interactions. He believes that humans seek acceptance and the Internet offers that. With out acceptance, we feel unloved. Without love we feel afraid. Lacking time, space, and form the Internet narrows perception and caters to our desires. Without the sense of community we feel unfulfilled we lose essential social communication skills. The real and virtually real b lend so well that we cannot properly ascertain what is genuine from what is not.With all the technological advancements something as simple(a) as tone cannot be properly communicated through cyberspace. In frozen text conversation often the meaning of what we are hard to say to each other gets lost. Bugged believes cyberspace lacks authenticity, citing that private enterprise controls what we do and see. All technology in its infancy suffers from public ridicule and change. The biggest distinction now is that change has happen in such short level of time. The printing contract do millions literate, but put copy scribes out of employment.The telegraph helped war become more strategic, but made war more violent. The radio made current compensatets current to everyone, but instilled inbuilt fear into everyone. All these innovations came with great change to how we communicate. Today we can only speculate what negative changes the Internet will bring to society. We know the co nvenience the Internet brings, but what nearly the negative impacts? The Internet has changed the nature of entertainment, business, government, contain trading, and much more. 5000 years agone the pattern of written language allowed people to communicate, without needing to be face-to-face.Early Mesopotamia would scribe onto walls of caves messages to their counterparts, thus creating the world-class virtual reality. The printing press of the fifteenth century made it possible for hosannas of people receive the very(prenominal) information at the alike(p) time thus creating Mass Media. Telegraphs made direct communication possible at long distances, while telephones and radio let us communicate verbally. These technologies changed how society operated much like the invention of the Internet would in the twentieth century.Rapidly integrating into every facet of our lives the Internet has changed society faster then any of the other forms of media. Cyberspace offers us conveni ence and control like weve never experienced before. Being able to see your Ovid ones faces when you tell you are getting married, from 500 miles away now seems ordinary. The Internet allows us to get directions to a restaurant, check table availability, and the private instructor on staff all while brushing our teeth. We drive cars that now require Internet connectivity to function. We say things like Google it to prove our points in conversation.We even sleep with our mobile connected devices. People now sit in Social gatherings like Bars and parties in complete silence we are now together yet alone. Joshua Moneywort, No Sense of place The phylogeny of media has creased the significance of physical presence in the experience of people and physically present one can communicate directly with others without meeting in the same place. As a result, the physical structures that once divided our society into many distinct spatial settings for interaction have been greatly reduced in s ocial significance. Moneywort 2) With technology making virtual direct communication possible, interpersonal communication skills are needed more than ever. Often limit non-verbal communications like touch, posture, and smell virtual immunization only offers a small percentage of the complexity of a face-to-face conversation. Large companies like Faceable and Apple continuously morph and change how they conduct business. Interpersonal receive is multidimensional it exists in a specific time and place. Contact is the staple component of community in human relationships.The Internet alters our perception of the world and our place in it. We over indulge in technology single out ourselves from humanity. As society grows and become more complex so must technology. We must ask the question of when does technology stop and society stupefy? Bugged says The transformation of society from the real to the virtually real has been occurring since the nineteenth century, affecting how we per ceive others and their cultures, communities, priorities, activities, and whereabouts. Bugged 1) The media offers a glance into other cultures and community virtual reality is not a new concept. What Bugged is trying to say is that now we are becoming saturated with medias influence. Just about every facet of our lives now has some sort of device that offers some sort of prescribed convenience. Modern technology helps control our daily lives to an close never thought possible. As a result, the way companies conduct their business has changed. New technology usually means a restructure in the labor force the difference now is the speed in which it has happened.In 1994 around 3 million people, mostly Americans had Internet access, the fugue that increased to 26 million the next year roughly doubling every year after till the year 2000. Companies have downsized and implemented technology to put back its human workers. From automated call centers to online tech support, business has downplayed the importance of interpersonal costumer service. Not only is business lacking in human- to-human interaction, we are too. Small mobile devices like the phone can do everything, even tell you a Joke.Society has evolved quicker in the last 20 years than ever before. Over the past 10 years, studies of mobile communication has shown, those devices in our pockets, are so psychologically powerful that they dont only change what we do, they change who we are. Things we do now only a few years ago we would consider odd or strange, now seem familiar. We check our devices first thing the morning, before even saying hello to our loved ones. We have minor anxiety attacks when our phone battery dies. We take short breaks during social periods to check our Faceable and Twitter feeds.We feel it necessary to take pictures and update statuses of every waking minute of our lives. I share therefore I am. Technology has created an alternative society- one that is digital, a society where we can create our own persona and manage our identity. A world where we can control how our peers perceive us. Relationships are complex and varied, the Internet is linear and sterile can it truly replace face-to-face interaction? We should not rely on Edie and technology to attain enduring relationships, which interactions and today pales in comparison to face-to-face communication.Technology can be the links through which we engage and befriend each other but to establish true relationships we must learn how to balance mingled with the two societies. The classical definition of how we communicate has been redefined. Conversations now exist in a myriad of formats, most of which have only been around for the past 20 years. Current forms of social media now influence how we communicate. Modern technology offers a sterile virtual environment that lacks physical dimensions such as pace and time.Bugged calls attention to the problem that develops when we spend too much time in cyberspac e rather than in real society. Constant connectivity gives us the freedom to control where we put our attention. The media and virtual communication shapes how we understand our own social identity. Overexposure to the media may leave unsympathetic or uninterested in everything around us. These days, those devises in our pockets are changing our minds and hearts offering us gratification. One, that we can put our attention wherever we want it to be two, that e will always be heard and three, that we will never have to be alone.

Main Stages of Child and Young Person Development Essay

Development skills can often be divided into categories such(prenominal) as wound up, genial, sensual etc. but all the different fictional character of skill link together and help people to complete an activity, for type playing football needs physical skills for good balance and running, social and communication skills as you have to work as part of a team and intellectual skills for working out tactics as wholesome as many more(prenominal) of the phylogenesis skills. Building on these skills influences a child or young person to grow to become independent, more confident and to have the ability to socialize. The more skills needed the more evoke a child or young person whitethorn be in a specific activity especially when they get fourth-year and enjoy being slightly challenged.An example of how a child whitethorn be touch on because of a delayed development in unrivaled of the areas is a child with speech problems such as an speech impediment, this bequeath have dela yed her communication skills. This then may have affected their intellectual skills slowing her process of learning to read and write. It also may affect her social development as their may find it surd to communicate with others and they may non understand her and may start to give nonice her. The child may them feel frustrated and lonely effecting their emotional development. only these are led from having a delayed communication development out-of-pocket to their speech impediment.Another example is a child with a physical disability, their physical development may not be to the normal shopworn so they may not be able to join in with certain activities other children can. This could affect their emotional development as they may feel left out but also their social development as they cant interact with other children when not connection in with an activity. If the physical disability is noticeable they may feel mortified which also with effect their emotional development and other children may not understand and think the child is different so they might not want to interact with that child which would then effect their social and emotional development as well.

Friday, February 22, 2019

Confessions of St.Patrick

kilobyte Kubl on the whole Feb, 4/2013 Hi baloney of Christianity Confessions of St. Patrick St. Patricks story is a quite dramatized one, it speaks about the gigantic things he has passed through. St. Patrick was one of the first and most influential missionaries to Ireland, bravely enter this superstitious and violent country to bring the healing balm of the gospel. for the first eon He was born in Great Britain nearing the quit of the fourth century. He was the son of Calpornius, who was a deacon and decurion.Patrick was of a noble birth, he was a Roman citizen. At about the near age of 16 he was captured by barbaric Irish pirates and taken to Ireland where he served as a slave tending to the sheep. During his Shepard snip, he was converted to the Lord and then afterward 6 years, divinity fudge gave him a dream to leave Ireland for his ship awaits. God made St. Patrick travel two hundred miles to where God told him the ship would be and boarded it and set sails back to his homeland in Britain.Now while among his family, he had other dream, this time a voice spoke to him telling him to return to Ireland. During this time an outlined map of Ireland was identified with the forest of foclut near the western sea. here(predicate) a childhood confession he made onward he became a deacon returned to haunt him. And later there was many pomposity of bringing religion to the Irish. It spoke on how they never knew God and treasure idols. Then in paragraph 42 he baptizes a stunning Irish princess in Gods name.Then he closes his confessions by saying that those who believe in the faith of God and fear him and do only what is pleasing in His sight will glorify Gods name eternally. For those were his confessions before he died. It seems that the new church leadership did not share their predecessors commendation of Patricks mission, particularly his emphasis on reaching the lost sort of than shepherding the existing flock. The bishops felt Patricks teams wer e spending too much time with the pagans and not enough time tending to their own spiritual wellspring being.Patrick quoted Mathew 28, explaining that Jesus had commanded his disciples to go into all the world and preach the gospel to all creation, baptizing the nations and teaching them to obey everything he had commanded. By most accounts Patricks efforts were successful. By the end of Patricks approximately 30 years of ministry in Ireland, the Church was anthesis and a previously violent, pagan land was becoming much more(prenominal) peaceful and virtuous.Patricks theology also freed him to build a couple to the Celtic culture by celebrating and emphasizing the aspects of that culture that he piece good and righteous. The key to Patricks approach, was his ability to tell the Celtic story better than the Celts could. He offered them a more complete explanation of their history, presentation how it finds its fulfillment in Jesus. Likewise we are today when doing missionary ev angelism, we should birth proper surveys of the population and know our grow before entering. Knowing our roots simply means to be grounded in the faith of Jesus.

Childcare – Orientation Package

CHILD dread LICENSING IN ONTARIO Orientation Pack mature for Prospective fry C be Operators June two hundred8 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction babe bid in Ontario electric razor get by Licensing in Ontario Role of the Operator The film director to a lower go down the solar sidereal sidereal twenty-four minutestimelighttime Nurseries role monkey Role of course of study Advisors The Application Process cookery and Design Guidelines for s eat upr C atomic anatomy 18 mettles Obtaining a Licence Health Canada crossing rubber device Program Duration of Licensing Process Types of Licences Child Cargon Licensing Web mapping Child C atomic number 18 supporter System Man long timers 5 5 6 6 7 7 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 Summary of Licensing Requirements for mean solar sidereal mean solar twenty-four hourstimelight Nurseries Organization and perplexity mental faculty Qualifications Health Assessments and immunisation Number and Group sizing Criminal grapheme Chec ks create and alteration Equipment and Furnishings Policies and Procedures Playground Requirements Inspections Insurance Requirements dismiss run a risk-freety and want In salmagundiation Health and medical checkup checkup Supervision for eld 13 13 13 13 14 15 15 17 17 18 19 19 19 20 21 2 demeanour Man mountment Enrolment Records Program 22 23 23 Summary of Licensing Requirements for Private- home office day C be Agencies Organization and Man termment Numbers of Children Criminal Reference Checks build and Accommodation Equipment and Furnishings Policies and Procedures Inspections Insurance Requirements Health and Medical Supervision Nutrition Behaviour Man ripenment Enrolment Records Program Health Assessments and Immunization 25 25 25 27 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 32 32 33Conclusion glossary of basis (Appendix 1) Things to Look Into Before Applying for a Licence to Operate a twenty- tetrad hour period Nursery or a PrivateHome twenty-four hour period C be Agency (Appen dix 2) Ministry of Children and spring chicken go regional Offices (Appendix 3) Child C atomic number 18 Service System Managers (Appendix 4) 34 35 36 37 38 3 INTRODUCTION single of the goals of the Ministry of Children and Y come kayoedh run is to help affirm amicable and economic exploitation in Ontario by investing in and clog uping an affordable, come-at-able and responsible claw divvy up system which helps benefit fryren, their parents and business organisationgivers, and the broader community.The early learning and chela anxiety system in Ontario should be accessible, affordable and inclusive carry off for infantren in a safe, nurturing environment foster early minorhood turn upgrowth help support early learning and readiness for school be flexible and provide choice support pincerren and their families provide take into account standards of s hold upr sympathize with provide supports for parents in financial quest, who are employed, in train ing, or involved in other employment activities support economic growth, and oeuvre in partnership with others involved in Ontarios arly learning and chela brutal maintenance system. This Orientation Package has been knowing to provide idiosyncratics who are implicated in obtaining a authorize to work either a day babys room ( excessively known as tiddler precaution centre of attentions) or a hidden-home day mete stunned theatrical performance in the Province of Ontario, with practical info and advice.The following culture is included in this package the process for obtaining a authorise a summary of the licensing requirements to operate a day babys room or a private-home day thrill style down the stairs the twenty-four hour period Nurseries act upon a glossary of terms (Appendix 1) teaching to assist you in considering your decision to leave for a manifest to operate either a day confinery or a private-home day worry chest (Appendix 2) a cite of the orbital Offices of the Ministry of Children and early days Services (Appendix 3), and a list of the Child Care Service System Managers responsible for syllabusning and managing the pitching of s countenancer fright religious supporters finishedout Ontario (Appendix 4). 4 CHILD address IN ONTARIO The small fry bid system in Ontario consists of a mountain chain of services for families and their tikeren, including licensed day nurseries and private-home day deal out which provide supports to clawren and their families.The mean solar day Nurseries acquit requires any premise that receives to a greater extent than quin nestlingren chthonian the age of 10 historic period, non of common parentage ( nestlingren who have different parents), for temporary make do and guidance, to be licensed as a day glasshouse. A person whitethorn provide informal baby armorial bearing to five kidren or less low the age of 10 age who are non of common parentage ( mi norren who have different parents), in accession to his/her own boorren, without a license. This piece whitethorn not be croaked, heedless of the number of adults presend or on site. When a person provides in-home child mission at to a greater extent than matchless(a) location or co-ordinates the proviso of cathexis at more than than genius site, a evidence to operate a private-home day circumspection agency is involve. It is an offensive activity to establish, operate or maintain a day babys room or private-home day care agency without a attest.On conviction, the fine is up to $2,000 for any(prenominal) day the offence continues, or imprisonment for a term of not more than hotshot twelvemonth, or both. Ministry cater have the certificate of indebtedness to follow-up on on the whole complaints about child care creation provided without a pass. CHILD CARE LICENSING IN ONTARIO The Ministry of Children and jejuneness Services is responsible for the Day Nurs eries execution and issues evidences to floozys of child care designs. There are two types of licensed child care schedules day nurseries and private-home day care agencies. In the Day Nurseries Act and in this package, child care centres are referred to as day nurseries. Day nurseries whitethorn include nursery schools, skillful day care, panoptic day care, and in advancehand and after school classs. 5Private-home day care agencies arrange or tornado home day care at more than one home. Care is provided to five children or less, chthonic(a) 10 forms of age in a private residence other than the home of the parent/guardian of the child. Homes are monitored by the agency. Role of the Operator Operators have responsibility for the unconscious process and management of distri justively day nursery or private-home day care agency, including the design, financial and personnel government activity of the course of study. Operators of licensed day nurseries and private-ho me day care agencies are c both for to achieve and maintain compliance with the standards array out in Ontario decree 262 under the Day Nurseries Act at distributively times.The Day Nurseries Act and Ontario Regulation 262 are visible(prenominal) through military issue Services 777 quest track, Market Level, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C8 416-585-7485 or 1-800-668-9938 The Day Nurseries Act is available on the ministrys website at http//www. elaws. gov. on. ca/hypertext markup language/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_90d02_e. htm. Ontario Regulation 262 under the Day Nurseries Act is available online at http//www. elaws. gov. on. ca/html/regs/english/elaws_regs_900262_e. htm37. (1). The theatre director under the Day Nurseries Act Child care licences are issued by a music director who is an employee of the Ministry of Children and Youth Services, appointed by the minister for the purpose of the Day Nurseries Act. The conductor reviews exclusively documents demand for licensi ng, approves and signs the licence.The Director has the authority to eliminate to issue a new licence if the applier or any of the ships officeholders, directors or employees of the applicator are not workman bid to operate a day nursery or privatehome day care agency in a responsible manner in harmony with the Day Nurseries Act 6 the past conduct of the appli ignoret affords conceivable grounds for the belief that a day nursery or private-home day care agency leave not be operated in ossification with the Day Nurseries Act, or the building in which the applicant proposes to operate the day nursery or provide private-home day care does not pursue with the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act. In addition, if on that point are grounds, the Director may refuse to renew or revoke an equaling licence. The Director may also issue a direction and temporarily suspend a licence if there is an immediate threat to the health, safety or puff up-being of the children.An app licant or licensee is entitled to a hearing before the Licence conjure up Tribunal. Role of Program Advisors Program Advisors, Ministry of Children and Youth Services staff designated under Section 16 of the Day Nurseries Act, are responsible for inspecting day nurseries and private-home day care agencies to enforce licensing requirements. In both(prenominal) regional offices, this position is referred to as Licensing Specialist. Program Advisors are responsible for assessing whether the factor has met the licensing requirements before an initial licence is issued. Unannounced recaps are conducted by Program Advisors for licence permutations on an yearbook basis or more frequently for a shorter term licences.In addition, Program Advisors conduct unannounced inspections in response to complaints related to licensed child care programs and to monitor manners who have difficulty maintaining compliance with licensing standards. The Ministry of Children and Youth Services also re sponds to complaints from the state-supported pertaining to persons who are allege to be operating without a licence (i. e. caring for more than five children under 10 age of age, not of common parentage, without a licence). The Application Process An individual or confederacy can apply for a licence to operate a day nursery or a private-home day care agency. (Licences cannot be issued to partnerships. ) 7Types of hustlers include an individual messs (non-profit and for-profit) municipalities community colleges churches, or Bands and Councils of the Band. The prospective operator contacts the topical anaesthetic regional Office (see Appendix 3) to request an application package and endure the information required before proceeding with the next steps in the licensing process. Prior to requesting an initial site inspection for a day nursery (a visit to determine if the aloofness is suspend), the operator submits the completed application form to the Regional Office, a s rise up as create verbally verification from the zone authority confirming the location is clear for use as a child care centre detailed floor plans, and detailed site plans of the proposed location.These plans essentialiness(prenominal)(prenominal)iness include room measurements, window measurements (actual glass subject), location of touch on cabinets (counters and storehouse athletic fields) and fenced outdoor(prenominal) resort area space dimensions (if required). Please note that impelling July 1, 2005, as part of regulatory changes to the Ontario Building Code, all building or renovation plans for a day nursery essential be reviewed and ratified by the Ministry of Children and Youth Services prior(prenominal) to a municipality issuing a building permit. It is the operators responsibility to determine whether the location will adjoin zoning, building, nurture and health requirements. pen verification moldiness(prenominal) be submitted to the region al office confirming that these requirements have been met prior to a licence being issued. The salary for a new licence is $15 the renewal fee is $10.If a licence renewal is submitted to the ministry after the licence endpoint find out, the late fee is $25. 8 Planning and Design Guidelines for Child Care Centres This guide provides information about the planning, design and renovation of licensed child care centres. It is intended to be utilise by persons involved in the site selection, design, and operation of a child care centre in the province of Ontario. This guide is available through the local anaesthetic MCYS Regional office and on the ministrys website at http//www. children. gov. on. ca/mcys/english/ resources/publications/be ststart-planning. asp. (Alternately, from the ministrys home page at http//www. children. gov. on. a, you can follow the links to top hat Start, then Best Start resources, then Planning and Design Guidelines for Child Care Centres. ) Obtaining a Licence To obtain a licence, applicants essential instal compliance with the requirements set out in Regulation 262 of the Day Nurseries Act in a number of areas including confirmation of compliance with municipal zoning, building, ignore and health requirements the suitability of the building availability of equipment and furnishings conformity with space requirements and resort area standards maintenance of staff/child ratios for various age groups staff qualifications pabulum book conduct management programming and insurance.Private-home day care agencies essential(prenominal) demonstrate compliance with the requirements set out in Regulation 262 of the Day Nurseries Act in a number of areas including staffing and training policies and procedures records of inspections of suppliers homes availability of equipment and furnishings appropriate behaviour management and insurance. The Program Advisor makes a recommendation to the Director under the Day Nurseries Act about the issuance of a licence based on their assessment of compliance with the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act and ministry constitution. The Director decides whether to issue a licence and the type and term of licence to be issued. The Director may add terms and contexts to the licence. The operator is required to stick with with the terms and conditions of the licence as well as the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act and ministry policy. 9Operators must apply for a licence renewal prior to the destruction date of the current licence. Licences may be issued for a period of up to one year if all licensing requirements are met. Health Canada Product arctic Program Health Canada helps protect the Canadian public by researching, assessing and collaborating in the management of the health risks and safety hazards associated with the many consumer harvest-times, including childrens equipment, toys and furnishings, that Canadians use everyday. through their Product Safety Progr am, Health Canada communicates information about juvenile product hazards and recalls to protect children from avoidable risks.Advisories and warnings, juvenile product recall notices, intellectual nourishment recalls and allergy alerts are stick on on the Health Canada website. The Consumer Product Recalls webpage can be accessed at http//209. 217. 71. 106/PR/list-liste-e. jsp. Health Canada offers an electronic newsletter so that the public can receive updates when consumer advisories and warnings, juvenile product recalls, and book of facts documents regarding consumer product safety are posted on the Health Canada Web site. As a prospective operator, you are encouraged to register on line for this service at http//www. hc-sc. gc. ca/cps-spc/advisories-avis/_subscribeabonnement/index_e. html.Duration of Initial Licensing Process It may take up to 6 to 12 months to open a new day nursery or private-home day care agency depending on a number of factors, including the extent of the renovations, the incorporation of a corporation, the purchasing of equipment, the hiring of a supervisor or home visitors, the recruitment of staff, the bourgeonment of policies and obtaining all required praises. Types of Licences Regular licence may be issued for up to 1 year if the operator was in compliance with licensing requirements when last inspected. 10 Regular short-term licence issued at the discretion of the Director single-valued functionly issued to new licensees ( broadly for a period of up to sestet months) or when more frequent licensing visits are appropriate to support ongoing compliance.Regular licence with terms and conditions terms and conditions are requirements prescribed by a Director and are supernumerary to the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act. They may forge circumstances particular proposition to the operation, such as half day or 10 month service. They may also be in place to minimize the recurrence of a non-compliance, such as inc omplete staff medical examination records. Provisional licence When Day Nurseries Act requirements have not been met and the operator requires time to meet requirements, a prepal licence (generally for a period up to three months) may be issued. This licence gives the operator a period of time to meet licensing requirements.Copies of a letter indicating that a provisional licence has been issued and a summary of the non-compliances are sent to the centre for distribution to parents. The summary of non-compliances will also appear on the Child Care Licensing Website. Child Care Licensing Website MCYS has launched the Child Care Licensing Website to provide parents with information about licensed child care in Ontario. The site is accessible at http//www. ontario. ca/ONT/portal51/licensedchildcare. A search tool allows parents to search for child care by city, postal code, type of program, age group, program name, operator name and language of service delivery.The site also provi des the status of the licence and the terms and conditions of the licence for any licensed program parents might be considering or about which they might be concerned. Once a licence is issued, the information appearing on the licence of the program will be available on the website. Child Care Service System Managers The child care system is managed at the municipal level by fortyseven unify Municipal Service Managers (CMSMs) / dominion 11 Social Services goernance planks (DSSABs). break apartly service system manager has responsibility for planning and managing a broad range of child care services, including fee subsidy, wage subsidy, family resource centres and special needs resourcing.Prospective operators should contact their local child care service system manager (see Appendix 4) to discuss the need for child care in the area being considered and for information about funding and fee subsidy. 12 DAY NURSERIES ACT SUMMARY OF LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR DAY NURSERIES Day nur series are centre-based programs and can include nursery schools, full day child care, extended day and before and after school programs. Organization and Management The operator of the day nursery is responsible for maintaining compliance with the Day Nurseries Act and ministry policy. This includes responsibility for the operation and management of the program and financial and personnel administration. A do supervisor who directs the program and oersees the staff is required for separately child care centre.This person must have a diploma in wee childishness Education, or other academic qualifications which are considered kindred, and have at least two eld interpret in Early Childhood Education. The supervisor must also be canonical by the Director under the Day Nurseries Act. round Qualifications The supervisor must have a diploma in Early Childhood Education or equivalent qualifications, with two years experience and must be sanctioned by the Director under the Day N urseries Act. One staff with a diploma in Early Childhood Education or equivalent qualifications must be hired for from each one group of children. Health Assessments and Immunization module immunization/health assessment, as required by the local medical officer of health, must be completed before commencing employment. 13Number and Group Size Number of Staff required for a Day Nursery other than a Day Nursery for Children with Disabilities Ratio of Employees to Children 3 to 10 1 to 5 Maximum Number of Children in a Group 10 15 Group Age of Children in Group Infant bambino under(a) 18 months of age 18 months of age and oer up to and including 30 months of age more than 30 months of age up to and including 5 years of age 44 months of age or oer and up to and including 67 months of age as of alarming 31 of the year 56 months of age or everyplace and up to and including 67 months of age as of August 31 of the year 68 months of age or over as of August 31 of the year and u p to and including 12 years of age Preschool 1 to 8 16 Junior Kindergarten 1 to 10 20 Senior Kindergarten 1 to 12 24 School age to 15 30 all(prenominal) children must be supervised by an adult at all times. Ratios are not permitted to be rock-bottom at any time for children under 18 months of age. Ratios are not to be reduced on the take onground. 14 Where there are cardinal or more children over 18 months of age or four or more children under 18 months of age in attendance, there must be at least two adults on the premise. Staff/child ratios may be reduced to 2/3 of the required ratios during the periods of arrival and issue of children and during the easement period, with the following exceptions when children are under 18 months of age on the findground with any age group In a full day program operating six or more hours in a day, for the purposes of staffing, the period of arrival is not to go along two hours after the opening and the period of departure is not to exceed two hours before the closing of the day nursery. In half day nursery school programs and school age programs, the period of arrival is not to exceed 30 minutes after the opening and the period of departure is not to exceed 30 minutes before the closing of the day nursery. Criminal Reference Checks Individuals and directors of a corporation applying for new licences will be required to submit a reprehensible summon check to their local Ministry of Children and Youth Services Regional Office as part of the licence application.In homework for the initial licensing visit, the operator of the day nursery is required to develop a criminal lengthiness check policy for all full and part time staff working with the children, as well as for volunteers. Additional information about the Ministry of Children and Youth Services criminal reference check policy is available from Regional Offices. Building and Accommodation all(prenominal) day nursery must comply with the requirements of applicable local authorities i. e. zoning and building plane subsection, medical officer of health and fire discussion section comply with the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 2002, O. Reg. 170/03, where applicable.These provisions simply apply to designated facilities with drinking water systems where 15 the water is not provided through service connections with a municipal residential water system. The requirements of this regulation are available from the Ministry of the Environments website at http//www. ene. gov. on. ca/envision/gp/5361e. pdf comply with the requirements for lead flushing and water sample testing (where applicable) under the Safe Drinking Water Act, 2002, O. Reg. 243/07. The requirements of this regulation are available from the Ministry of the Environments website at http//www. ontario. ca/ONT/portal51/drinkingwater/General? docId= 177450&lang=en comply with the requirements of the Smoke- unembellished OntarioAct have designated spaces for washing, toileting and give out storage areas for toys, forgather materials and equipment have designated space for eating and resting, preparation of aliment if prepared on premises or a food service area if food is catered (prepared off premises by a food catering company and delivered to the centre), a fenced playground (see page 15), storage for beds, a staff rest area and an office area if the program operates for six or more hours have play space of at least 2. 8 square metres (30 square feet) of unobstructed floor space for each child, based on the licensed capacity have separate play activity board for each age grouping. A separate tranquillity area for infants is also required have rooms on or below the second floor where the rooms are for children under six years of age have a clear window glass area equivalent to 10% of the available floor area for each play activity room for a program that operates for six or more hours in a day. 16 Equipment and Furnishin gs Each day nursery must have an adequate number of toys, equipment and furnishings for the licensed capacity.The toys, equipment and furnishings must be age appropriate and include sufficient song for gyration as well as for gross- force back activity in the playground area infant and toddler diapering areas that are adjacent to a sink cribs or cradles that meet the requirements of the Hazardous Products Act, for infants, and cots for aged children equipment and furnishings which are maintained in a safe and clean condition and kept in a solid state of repair a telephone or an alternative means of obtaining necessity assistance that is approved by the Director Where children are transported in a day nursery vehicle, child seating and restraint systems are used that meet the requirements of the Highway Traffic Act, O. Reg. 613.Policies and Procedures all(prenominal) operator must develop the following policies and procedures Fire voiding procedures strong practices Se rious item policy, including child abuse reporting procedures Criminal reference check policy medicinal drug policy Behaviour management policy, including monitoring procedures and contravention policies 17 Program asseveration/parent handbook Playground safety policy anaphylactic policy, including an individual plan for each child with a heavy allergy and the parking brake procedures to be followed. Playground Requirements Programs operating six or more hours in a day require outdoor play space equivalent to 5. 6 square metres (60 square feet) per child, based on licensed capacity. The playground must be sub-divided if licensed capacity is over 64 children at ground level and adjacent to the premise knowing so that staff can maintain constant supervision. If used by children under 44 months of age as of August 31 of the year, the playground must be fenced to a token(prenominal) height of 1. 2m (4 feet) and furnished with one or more gates that can be securely una ppealing at all times. If used by children 44 months of age and up to an including 67 month of age as of August 31 of the year (children eligible to attend junior and senior kindergarten), the playground is fenced to a minimum height of 1. 2 metres and the fence is furnished with one or more gates that are securely closed at all times, unless otherwise approved by the Director. Fixed playground structures (i. e. limbing equipment, slides) are not required by the Day Nurseries Act however, if the operator intends to install fixed play structures, the structures and safety surfacing must meet current Canadian Standards connexion standards. The current Canadian Standards Associations (CSA) Standard applies to new and freshly refurbishd playground equipment, and 18 safety surfacing. The CSA Standards also set out the requirements for routine maintenance and inspections. Playground plans indicating the type and location of fixed structures as well as the type and area of safety su rfacing must be approved by the ministry before installation. Once play structures and surfacing are installed, compliance with the CSA standards must be verified in writing by an independent certified playground inspector before the structures can be used by the children.Inspections Copies of fire and health inspections are to be sent to the Ministry of Children and Youth Services program advisor and kept on consign at the day nursery. Insurance Requirements The operator must have general general liability coverage and in the flesh(predicate) injury coverage for all staff and volunteers. All vehicles owned by the operator and used for loony toons of staff and children must have motor vehicle insurance. Fire Safety and Emergency Information A fire safety plan must be approved by the local fire department. A pen evacuation procedure, approved by the fire department, must be posted in each room. Staff are to be instructed on their responsibilities in the event of fire. Mo nthly fire drills must be conducted and indite records of drills maintained. Tests of the fire alarm system and fire protection equipment (as required under the Ontario Fire Code) must be conducted and written records of test results maintained. 19 There must be a designated place of emergency shelter. An up-to-date list of emergency telephone numbers including the fire department, hospital, ambulance service, poison control centre, police department and a taxi service must be posted where they can be easily accessed. Medical and emergency contact information for each child must be accessible. Health and Medical Supervision A daily written log that includes health and safety incidents is required. Any book of instructions or recommendations made by the fire department, public health department or other regulatory bodies must be implemented and recorded. Sanitary practices and procedures must be approved by Ministry. Children must be immunise according to the requirements o f the local medical officer of health, unless a fully real exemption is on file. Before each child begins to play with others, a daily honoring of the childs health is required. An ill child must be separated from others and arrangements made for the child to be interpreted home or for immediate medical attention, if required. Serious occurrence procedures must be in place and the Ministry of Children and Youth Services notified of any occurrence.A grievous occurrence includes such things as the death of a child, a earnest injury, alleged abuse/mistreatment of a child, a missing child, a casualty on the premises (e. g. fire) or a serious complaint. 20 A written anaphylactic policy is in place that includes A system to reduce the risk of exposure to anaphylactic causative agents A converse plan for the provision of information on lifethreatening allergies, including anaphylactic allergies An individual plan for each child with an anaphylactic allergy that includes emerg ency procedures in mention of the child Staff, students and volunteers have received training on procedures to be followed if a child has an anaphylactic reaction. A first aid kit and manual(a)(a) must be readily available. A written procedure approved by a qualified medical practitioner regarding the giving and save of medication is required. The procedure should include the storage of medication (e. g. medication must be stored in a locked container). If a child has or may have a reportable disease or is or may be infected with a communicable disease, this is reported to the medical officer of health as soon as possible. Cats and dogs on the premises must be inoculated against rabies. Nutrition Infants are to be fed according to written enate instructions. food for thought and drink from home must be labeled with the childs name. All food and drink must be stored to maintain maximum alimental value. Meals and snacks must meet the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act . Canadas aliment Guide provides useful information about nutrition. 21 Meals are to be provided where a day nursery operates for 6 or more hours each day or where the daily program operates less than 6 hours each day and operates over the meal time. This generally refers to the provision of lunch as the mid-day meal. In day nurseries that offer care over extended hours, this may mean that breakfast and/or dinner are also provided. With the approval of a ministry Director, children 44 months of age or over as of August 31 of the year may bring pop lunches.Written policies and procedures with guidelines for bag lunches should be both posted and provided to parents. Menus must be posted with substitutions noted. Childrens food allergies must be posted in the kitchen and in all rooms where food is served. Special dietary arrangements for individual children are to be carried out according to written instructions of parents. Behaviour Management Corporal punishment is not allow ed under any circumstances. The following are not permitted tump over harsh or degrading measures that would humiliate or undermine a childs self respect deprivation of food, shelter, clothing or bedding throttle a child in a locked room exits locked for the purpose of confinement. Written behaviour management policies and procedures which guide centre staff in managing childrens behaviour are to be reviewed annually by the operator. The operator is required to review the policies and procedures with employees and volunteers or students before they begin working, and annually thereafter. These policies must set out permitted and prohibited behaviour 22 management practices and measures to deal with any contraventions of the policy. There must be a signed, written record of all reviews, and a written procedure for monitoring behaviour management practices of employees, students and volunteers, and a record kept of this monitoring.Enrolment Records Up to date enrolment reco rds for all children in attendance must be on site at all times and be available to the Ministry of Children and Youth Services. These records include, in part, an application, immunization records, emergency information, names of persons to whom the child may be released, parental instructions regarding rest, diet or exercise. Daily attendance records that indicate a childs arrival, departure and absence from the program are required. The medical officer of health or designate such as the public health nurse is permitted to inspect childrens records to ensure that all required immunizations are up to date.Program In order to ensure that the program offered is age and developmentally appropriate for the age of the children being served, the following is required a written program philosophy statement which is reviewed annually by the operator and with parents prior to enrolling their child a program statement which includes services, age range, times when the services are offere d, holidays, fees, admission and discharge policies, program philosophy, program development, personal and health care, nutrition, parental involvement and 23 behaviour management, specialized services and activities off the premises varied, flexible and age appropriate programs that include quiesce and active play, individual and group activities which are designed to promote gross and fine motor skills, language and cognitive skills, and social and emotional development, and a daily program plan posted and available to parents with any variations to the program recorded in the daily log.In addition Any infants not able to walk are to be separated from other children during active indoor and outdoor play periods Children under 30 months of age are to be separated from older children during active indoor and outdoor play periods Children who attend for six or more hours in a day and are over 30 months of age shall have at least two hours of outdoor play, die hard permitting Children who attend for six or more hours in a day and are under 30 months of age shall be outside for stay or play, for up to two hours, run permitting Children who attend for six or more hours in a day and who are between the ages of 18 months and five years shall have a rest period, not time-consuming than two hours following lunch A child under 44 months of age as of August 31 of the year who is unable to sleep is not to be kept in a bed (cot) for lengthy than one hour, after which the child is allowed to get up and participate in quiet activities A child 44 months of age or over and up to and including 67 months of age as of August 31 of the year and who is unable to sleep during the rest period is permitted to engage in quiet activities. 24 DAY NURSERIES ACT SUMMARY OF LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR PRIVATE-HOME DAY CARE AGENCIES Private-home day care agencies provide home child care at more than one location. Care in each location is provided to five children or less under 10 years of age in a private residence other than the home of the parent/guardian of the child. Homes are monitored by the agency. Organization and Management Each private-home day care agency is required to employ one home visitor for every xxv homes.The home visitor must have completed a post-secondary program of studies in child development and family studies (for example a diploma in Early Childhood Education or a Degree in Child Studies), have a least two years experience and must be approved by the Director under the Day Nurseries Act. Home visitors provide support to providers who are required to follow the agencies approved policies and procedures and meet the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act. They are responsible for the recruitment, evaluation and monitoring of providers and the care they offer. Home visitors also meet with parents and providers to establish the most suitable place for a child and facilitate ongoing communication with parents.Numbers of Children In each home that has been approved by the agency The number of children receiving child care must not exceed 5 children The number of children under 6 years in the providers home, including the providers own, may not exceed a total of 5 children The following number of children in each of the following classifications cannot be exceeded at any one time 25 two handicapped children two children, who are under 2 years of age three children, who are under 3 years of age one handicapped child and one child who is under 2 years of age one handicapped child and two children who are over 2 years of age but under three years of age. Where the children of the provider are under the age of six years, they must be counted in the allowable age meld of children listed above however, the provider may still have five child care children in addition to her own by caring for some school age children. For example, a provider who has three children of her own under five years may, in addition, provide care for five child care children, if at least three of these children are over the age of six. With the approval of the agency, school age children up to and including the age of 12 years may be accommodated along with younger children where appropriate. Agency placed children over the age of 10 years must be counted in the homogeneous way as other children, i. e. , there can be a total of only five placements with one provider.Example groupings of the number of allowable children Privatehome day care child Under 2 years 2 1 2 1 2 Privatehome day care child Under 3 years Privatehome day care child 3 to under 6 years 1 2 2 3 Privatehome day care child Over 6 years suppliers children Under 6 years Providers children over 6 years (not counted in allowable number of children) 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 Private-home day care child includes children placed by the private-home day care agency as well as any children receiving care through private arrangements between the provider and t he childs parent/guardian. 26 Every private-home day care agency establishes a maximum capacity for each home in compliance with the Day Nurseries Act.Criminal Reference Checks Individuals and directors of a corporation applying for new licences will be required to submit a criminal reference check to their local Ministry of Children and Youth Services Regional Office, as part of the licence application. In preparation for the initial licensing visit, the operator of the private-home day care agency is required to develop a criminal reference check policy for all staff and providers working with the children, as well as for any volunteers and other persons regularly on the premises where care is being provided. Additional information about the Ministry of Children and Youth Services criminal reference check policy is available from Regional Offices. Building and Accommodation The buildings and accommodation must comply with municipal bylaws, health, fire and zoning requirements. Private-home day care locations must comply with the requirements of the Smoke-Free Ontario Act. Equipment and Furnishings Suitable indoor and outdoor play equipment is required for the number and developmental needs of the children enrolled. Cribs or cradles that meet the requirements of the Hazardous Products Act are required for infants, and cots and beds for older children. All equipment must be maintained in a safe and clean condition and kept in good repair. Outdoor play must be supervised and planned in consultation with the home visitor and the childs parent. Poisonous and hazardous materials are to be inaccessible to children. 27 Firearms and ammunition are to be kept locked and inaccessible to children. Where a private-home day care operator or private-home day care provider transports child in a vehicle, child seating and restraint systems are used that meet the requirements of the Highway Traffic Act, O. Reg. 613. Working smoke alarms are installed or so all qui escency areas at the location and on every spirit level of the providers home that does not have a sleeping area. Policies and Procedures Every operator must develop the following policies and procedures Fire evacuation procedures Sanitary practices Serious occurrence policy, including child abuse reporting procedures Anaphylactic policy, including an individual plan for each child with a severe allergy and the emergency procedures to be followed. Criminal reference check policy Medication policy Behaviour management policy, including monitoring procedures and contravention policy Home visitor and provider training and development policy Program statement/parent handbook. Inspections Copies of fire and health inspections are to be sent to the Ministry of Children and Youth Services program advisor and kept on file at the head office of the private-home day care agency. 28 Insurance Requirements The operator must have comprehensive general liability coverage and personal i njury coverage for all staff and providers. All vehicles owned by the operator must have motor vehicle insurance. Health and Medical Supervision Instructions or recommendations from the local Public Health section must be implemented. Sanitary practices and procedures must be approved by the Ministry. Children are to be immunized as recommended by the local medical officer of health. Each day, before each child begins to play with others, an observation of the childs health is required. An ill child must be separated from others and arrangements made for the child to be taken home or for immediate medical attention, if required. Serious occurrence procedures must be in place and the Ministry of Children and Youth Services notified of any occurrence. A serious occurrence includes such things as the death of a child, a serious injury, alleged abuse/mistreatment of a child, a missing child, a disaster on the premises (e. g. fire) or a serious complaint. A written anaphylactic po licy is in place that includes A strategy to reduce the risk of exposure to anaphylactic causative agents A communication plan for the provision of information on lifethreatening allergies, including anaphylactic allergies An individual plan for each child with an anaphylactic allergy that includes emergency procedures in respect of the child 29 Home visitors, providers, residents, students and volunteers have received training on procedures to be followed if a child has an anaphylactic reaction. A first aid kit and manual must be readily available. A written procedure approved by a qualified medical practitioner regarding the giving and record of medication is required. The procedure should include the storage of medication (e. g. tored in a location that is inaccessible to children). Cats and dogs on the premises must be inoculated against rabies. Nutrition Infants are to be fed according to written parental instructions. Food and drink that is brought from home is to be labelled with the childs name. All food and drink must be stored to maintain maximum nutritive value. Meals and snacks must meet the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act. Canadas Food Guide provides useful information about nutrition. Nutritious between-meal snacks are to be provided for each child one year of age or over that promote good alveolar consonant health and will not interfere with a childs appetite for meal time. Meals are to be provided where a private-home day care location provides care for 6 or more hours each day or where care is provided for less than 6 hours each day and over the meal time. This generally refers to the provision of lunch as the mid-day meal. In locations that offer care over extended hours, this may mean that breakfast and/or dinner are also provided. With the approval of a ministry Director, children 44 months of age or over as of August 31 of the year may bring bag lunches. Written 30 Menus are to be planned in consultation with parents and the home visitor. Special dietary arrangements for individual children are to be carried out according to written instructions of parents. Behaviour Management Corporal punishment is not allowed under any circumstances. The following are not permitted reflect harsh or degrading measures that would humiliate or undermine a childs self respect Deprivation of food, shelter, clothing or bedding restrict a child in a locked room, and Exits locked for the purpose of confinement. Written behaviour management policies and procedures for providers management of childrens behaviour must be reviewed annually by the operator and with each provider, volunteers, students and any persons regularly on the premises where care is being provided. These policies must set out permitted and prohibited behaviour management practices and measures to deal with any contraventions of the policy. There must be a signed, written record of all reviews, and a written procedure for monitoring behavi our management practices of providers, students, volunteers and any persons regularly on the premises, and a record kept of this monitoring. 31 Enrolment Records Up to date enrolment records for all children in attendance must be on site at all times and be available to the Ministry of Children and Youth Services. This record includes, in part, an application, immunization, emergency information, names of persons to whom the child may be released, parental instructions regarding rest, diet or exercise). A record of each childs daily attendance is required. Local medical officer of health or designate such as the public health nurse is permitted to inspect records to ensure that all required immunizations are up to date.Program In order to ensure that the program offered is age and developmentally appropriate for the age of the children being served the following is required a written program philosophy statement which is to be reviewed annually by the operator and with parents p rior to enrolling their child a program statement which includes services, age range, fees, particular admission to program, parental involvement and behaviour management varied, flexible and age appropriate programs must be planned which include quiet and active play as well as individual and group activities that are designed to promote gross and fine motor skills, language and cognitive skills, and social and emotional development, and the program of activities is to be made available to parents.In addition Each child who is in attendance for six or more hours in a day and is over 30 months of age is required to have daily outdoor activities. 32 Each child under 30 months of age in attendance for six or more hours in a day is required to be outdoors for sleep or play or both for up to two hours each day, weather permitting. Each child who is in attendance for six or more hours in a day and is between 18 months and five years is required to have a rest period not transcend ent 2 hours following lunch. A child under 44 months of age as of August 31 of the year who is unable to sleep is not to be kept in bed (cot/playpen) for longer than one hour and is allowed to get up and participate in quiet activities. A child 44 months of age or over and up to and including 67 months of age as of August 31 of the year and who is unable to sleep during the rest period is permitted to engage in quiet activities. Health Assessments or Immunization Providers and persons (including the providers own children) regularly on the premises must be immunized as recommended by the local medical officer of health, unless a fully authorized exemption in on file. 33 CONCLUSION The Ministry of Children and Youth Services vision is an Ontario where all children and youth have the best opportunity to succeed and reach their full potential. Child care is an important support to families, healthy child development and school readiness.The licensing requirements exist to support a s ystem where children are cared for in a safe, nurturing and impact environment. The information provided in this package will assist you in understand the licensing requirements for child care in Ontario. This package is only an overview of the process. If you decide to apply for a licence to operate either a day nursery or a private-home day care agency, contact the Ministry of Children and Youth Services Regional Office in your area for more detailed information. The Regional Office staff will be pleased to assist and support you in establishing your child care program. 34 vermiform appendix 1 Glossary of TermsChild Care Service System Managers The municipalities and district social service administration boards which are responsible for the management of the delivery of child care services. premise that receive more than five children under 10 years of age, not of common parentage, for a continuous period not more than 24 hours for temporary care and guidance. The Ministry als o licenses day nurseries for children with a developmental deterioration up to the age of 18 years. An employee of the Ministry appointed by the Minister as a Director for all or any of the purposes under the Day Nurseries Act. Ministry of Children and Youth Services. Minister of the Ministry of Children and Youth Services An individual or corporation who holds the licence.A person or corporation that provides private home day care at more than one location. The self employed person in charge of the children in a location where private-home day care is provided who is in a flash responsible for planning and implementing a daily program. A ministry employee, designated under section 16 of the Day Nurseries Act to inspect licensed child care programs and follow up on complaints about unlicensed child care. Ministry offices laid in geographical areas across the province. Day Nursery Director Ministry Minister Operator Private-Home Day Care Agency Private-Home Day Care Provider Progr am Advisor Regional Offices 35 APPENDIX 2Things to look into before applying for a licence to operate a day nursery or a private-home day care agency NOTE It is recommended that you do not purchase or lease premises for a day nursery until you have reviewed this information, taken the steps as outlined and consulted with the ministry about your specific plans. Obtain a copy of the Day Nurseries Act to become beaten(prenominal) with the regulations governing the operation of a licensed day nursery or a privatehome day care agency. A copy of the Day Nurseries Act is available from Publications Ontario, 777 Bay lane, Market Level, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C8 or by calling 416-585-7485 or 1-800-668-9938.The Day Nurseries Act can also be viewed on the ministrys website at http//www. children. gov. on. ca by following the links to Legislation. Assess the need for service within the area in which you intend to operate. This could include contacting breathing agencies and/or child care cen tres to discuss the possible need for additional licensed child care services and surveying the community where you would like to establish your service. Speak with your fire, health and municipal zoning and building inspection departments for information regarding any site specific requirements for starting a day nursery or a private-home day care agency. These telephone numbers are available in the blue pages of your telephone directory.Prepare a introductory budget based on expenses such as staff salaries and benefits, provider payments, play equipment, food, insurance and office expenses such as rent, taxes, utilities, telephone and imprecate charges. If you wish to operate a day nursery, determine what it would cost to renovate the space, indoors and outdoors in order to meet the requirements of the Day Nurseries Act and requirements of fire, health, and the building code. Ministry approval of the floor plans which include any proposed changes to the premises must be obtained prior to application for a building permit. Building permits issued by the municipal Building Department must be obtained prior any renovations being made. Call the MCYS Regional Office in your area for more detailed information and for assistance with the licensing process.Contact your local Child Care Service System Manager to find out about the child care services that are currently being delivered in your area. Examine their local child care plan to see what services are being planned and 36 developed. The addresses of the Child Care Service System Managers are included in this package. APPENDIX 3 Ministry of Children and Youth Services (MCYS) regional OFFICES MCYS Toronto Region 477 Mount Pleasant Rd, 3rd Floor, Toronto ON M7A 1G1 Tel (416) 325-0652 MCYS Central due east Region 465 Davis motor, Newmarket ON L3Y 8T2 Tel (905) 868-8900 Toll Free1-877-669-6658 MCYS Central westerly Region 6733 Mississauga Rd. retinue 200 Mississauga ON L5N 6J5 Tel (905) 567-7177 ext. 245 Toll Free 1-877-832-2818 MCYS Hamilton/Niagara Region 119 King St. W. , 7th floor Hamilton ON L8P 4Y7 Tel (905) 521-7344 Toll Free 1-800-561-0568 MCYS northerly Region 199 Larch St. , Suite 1002 Sudbury ON P3E 5P9 Tel (705) 564-6699 Toll Free1-800-265-1222 MCYS conspiracy West Region 217 York St. , Suite 203 London ON N6A 5R1 Tel (519) 438-5111 Toll Free 1-800-265-4197 MCYS South easternmost Region 11 Beechgrove Lane capital of Jamaica ON K7M 9A6 Tel (613) 545-0539 Toll Free1-800-646-3209 MCYS Eastern Region 347 Preston St. , 3rd floor capital of Canada ON K1S 3H8 Tel (613) 787-5281 Toll Free1-800-667-6190 MCYS northerly East Region 621 of import St.West North Bay ON P1B 2V6 Tel (705) 474-3540 Toll Free1-800-461-6977 37 APPENDIX 4 CHILD CARE SERVICE SYSTEM MANAGERS CENTRAL tocopherol neighbourhood city of Kawartha Lakes 322 Kent road West PO lash 2600 Lindsay ON K9V 4S7 (705) 324-9870 County of Northumberland 860 William way Cobourg ON K9A 3A9 (905) 372-6846 City of Pet erborough 178 Charlotte Street Peterborough ON K9J 8S1 (705) 748-8830 County of Simcoe judiciary Centre 1110 Hwy 26 West Midhurst ON L0L 1X0 (705) 735-6901 Regional Municipality of York 17250 Yonge Street PO box 147 Newmarket ON L3Y 6Z1 (905) 895-1231 Regional Municipality of Durham 605 Rossland Road East Whitby ON L1N 6A3 (905) 668-7711 CENTRAL WEST theatrical role County of Dufferin 229 Broadway Ave. Unit 4 Orangeville ON L9W 1K4 (519) 941-6991 Regional Municipality of Peel 3515 Wolfedale Road Mississauga ON L5C 1V8 (905) 791-1585 County of Wellington 21 Douglas Street Guelph ON N1H 2S7 (519) 837-3620 Regional Municipality of Halton 690 Dorval Drive, 5th Floor Oakville ON L6M 3L1 (905) 825-6000 Regional Municipality of Waterloo P. O. package 1612 99 Regina Street South, 5th Floor Waterloo ON N2J 4G6 (519) 883-2177 38 due eastERN REGION City of Cornwall 360 Pitt Street, PO Box 877 Cornwall ON K6H 5T9 (613) 932-6252 County of Renfrew 9 International Drive Pembroke ON K8A 6W5 (6 13) 735-7288 City of capital of Canada 100 Constellation Crescent Ottawa ON K2G 6J8 (613) 580-2424 United Counties of Prescott & Russell 59, Court Street P. O. Box 304 LOriginal ON K0B 1K0 (613) 675-4661 HAMILTON NIAGARACity of Brantford 220 Clarence Street Brantford ON N3R 3T5 (519) 756-3150 Norfolk County 12 Gilbertson Drive PO Box 570 Simcoe ON N3Y 4L1 (519) 426-6170 ex 3736 City of Hamilton 4 Hughson Street South, Suite 201 Hamilton ON L8N 3Z1 (905) 546-2424 ex. 4120 Regional Municipality of Niagara 2201 St. Davids Road PO Box 344 Thorold ON L2V 3Z3 (905) 984-6900 ex 3823 NORTH EAST REGION District of Cochrane Social Services Administration Board The ci Mall 38 Pine Street North, Unit 120 Timmins ON P4N 6K6 (705) 268-7722 Toll Free 1-877-259-7722 District Municipality of Muskoka 70 Pine Street Bracebridge ON P1L 1N3 (705) 645-2412 Toll Free 1-800-461-4215District of Nipissing Social Services Administration Board 200 McIntyre Street East, 3rd floor PO Box 750 North Bay ON P1B 8J 8 (705) 474-2151 District of Parry voice Social Services Administration Board 76 Church Street, 2nd floor Parry Sound ON P2A 1Z1 (705) 746-7777 Toll Free 1-800-461-4464 39 Toll Free 1-877-829-5121 District of Timiskaming Social Services Administration Board 29 Duncan Avenue North PO Box 310 Kirkland Lake ON P2N 3H7 (705) 567-9366 Toll Free 1-888-544-5555 NORTHERN REGION Algoma District Services Administration Board RR 1 1 Collver Rd. Thessalon ON P0R 1L0 (705) 842-3370 District of Thunder Bay Social Services Administration Board 34 N Cumberland St. 5th Floor Thunder Bay ON P7A 8B9 (807) 684-2155 Manitoulin-Sudbury District Social Services Administration Board 210 Mead Boulevard Espanola ON P5E 1R9 (705) 862-7850 The City of Greater Sudbury PO Box 5000, Station A Sudbury ON P3A 5W5 (705) 673-2171 District of Sault Ste. Marie Social Services Administration Board 180 Brock Street Sault Ste. Marie ON P6A 3B7 (705) 541-7300 Kenora District Services Board 211 Princess Street, Suite 1 Dry den ON P8N 3L5 (807) 223-2100 Rainy River District Social Services Administration Board 450 Scott Street Fort Frances ON P9A 1H2 (807) 274-5349 SOUTH EAST REGION City of Kingston 362 Montreal Street Kingston ON K7K 3H5 (613) 546-2695 County of Lanark P. O. Box 37 99 sunset(a) Blvd. County of Hastings P. O.Box 6300 Belleville ON K8N 5E2 (613) 966-8032 County of Prince Edward, Lennox and Addington 97 Thomas Street East 40 Perth ON K7H 3E2 (613) 267-4200 United Counties of Leeds and Grenville 25 Central Avenue West Suite 200 Brockville ON K6V 4N6 (613) 342-3840 Napanee ON K7R 3S9 (613) 354-4883 SOUTH WEST REGION City of London Child Care Services 151 Dundas Street, 4th Floor P. O. Box 5045 London ON N6A 4L6 (519) 661-2500, Ext. 5895 City of Stratford 82 Erie Street Stratford ON N5A 2M4 (519) 271-3773, Ext. 243 County of Bruce PO Box 399 30 Park Street Walkerton ON N0G 2V0 (519) 881-0431, Ext. 234 County of Huron Jacob Memorial Building 77722D London Road RR 5 Clinton ON N0M 1L0 (519) 482-8505, Ext. 01 County of Oxford 40 Metcalfe Street Woodstock ON N4S 3E7 (519) 539-5656, Ext. 248 City of St. Thomas St. Thomas/Elgin Ontario Works 423 Talbot Street St. Thomas ON N5P 1C1 (519) 631-9350, Ext. 128 City of Windsor 215 Talbot Street East Leamington ON N8H 3X5 (519) 322-3522 County of Grey 595-9th Avenue East Owen Sound ON N4K 3E3 (519) 376-7324 County of Lambton Community & Health Services 160 Exmouth Street Point Edward ON N7T 7Z6 (519) 383-6231, Ext. 242 Municipality of Chatham-Kent 435 Grand Avenue West PO Box 1230 Chatham ON N7M 5L8 (519) 351-1228, Ext. 2130 TORONTO REGION City of Toronto Childrens Services Division 55 John Street, Station 1102 41 10th Floor, Metro Hall Toronto ON M5V 3C6 (416) 392-5437 42