Thursday, February 28, 2019

Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Humanism Essay

psychiatric hospital behaviourism, Cognitivism and humaneism belong perhaps to the most extensively developed theories in the field of early Psychology. Their roots are said to draw from a heritage of scholarships developed by key thinkers as early as the 1900s. And as specific facets of science, their unifying goal is to explicate world port neither by dint of arbitrary and random observations nor unsubstantiated conclusions, but through a more rigorous bidding of scientific investigation (Moskowitz & Orgel, 1967, p. 107). This melodic theme attempts to successfully describe the three theories cited, and thus put them in conversation with wiz another. In the do by, this paper wishes to bring into the fore key similarities and congenator differences that may be gleaned from such a presentation.Three Psychological Theories. Behaviorism is a theory that operates on the underlying assumption that the concrete manifestations of man race manner are nothing but the result of identifiable causes or influences. format in other words, the core contention of behaviorism lies in misgiving human behavior in the context of its reactions to various stimuli (Behaviorism, 2007). account to this theory is operative principle of external reinforcements i.e., behaviorism takes the nature of human behavior as sufficiently explicable through the out-of-door forces performing on it. For instance, Ivan Pavlov in 1900 was able to demonstrate in his experiment that the salivation reflexes of dogs keep be controlled using external conditioning.By associating dog feeding sessions with lowly stimuli (say, bell ringing) it was learned that dogs eventu eachy tended to react to these secondary forces inas often as they do with primary stimuli. The idea that goes with the experiment was to establish the prediction and control of behavior (Wozniak, 1997). As a result, m two thinkers picked up this admirable conception, and, using Pavlovs investigation, a number of psych ologists began studying the how classical conditioning can be applied to human beings. (Moskowitz & Orgel, 1967, p. 107). If only to mention, other notable proponents of this theory overwhelm J. Watson, B.F. Sk cozy, and E. Thorndlike. Since behaviorism gives higher premium than most on the importance of look at the external forces affecting human behavior, it has a tendency to depreciate, if not all together deny the concept of human consciousness, or indispensable workings of the mind (Wozniak, 1997). Behaviorism assumes that the learner is necessityly passive, in that ones behavior relies intemperately on external forces to gain its concrete form. In many ways, this theory takes human behavior as tabula rasa i.e., a sheet wiped clean for external experiences to start building into. Thus, it claims that human behavior can be explained without the need to carry upcountry genial states (Behaviorism, 2007).In what appears to be a direct critique to the behaviorist theory, the cognitive psychological theory meanwhile believes that human training is a process that involves putting into use what already is present inwardly the human framework. Put in other words, instead of taking the human soulfulness as a tabula rasa, adherents of the cognitive theory seem to understand a person as a black box a repository of internal processors that enable one to achieve learning. Cognitivism was said to gain a fine amount of attention from among the diverse psychological circles in the 1960s. And noted theorists machine-accessible to this theory accommodate Merill, Reigeluth, Gagne, Briggs, Wager, among others (Cognitivism, 2007).A few significant differences may be gleaned from juxtaposing the two theories cited thus far. First, unlike behaviorism, cognitivism tends to pay closer attention to establishing inner psychological workings of a person to explain human behavior. Cognitivists close out the notion that the behavioral manifestations of a human person ar e explainable by solely citing external situationors. One can perhaps consider how human persons possess a unique manner of gaining insights a partitioning from outside experiences.For instance, if a child were to be given Lego constructs to play with, it would be perfectly difficult to explain how he or she can in the process end up building certain formation such as dolls, guns or planes if one were to only see a child from the situation of stimulus-response perspective. If only to argue, there is no stimulus-response framework to begin with. Instead, one needfully to look at the whole experience of the child from the point of count of insight building. For, according to Moskowitz and Orgel, the ability of the organism to manipulate symbols seems to be an essential component in insightful behavior (1967, p. 135). Second, unlike behaviorism, cognitivism does not charter to the concept of persons as programmed animals (Cognitivism, 2007).Far more critical, cognitive theorists reject any notion claiming that human persons are but passive recipients of external forces helpless, as they were, in the entire process of behavior formation or learning process. On the contrary, cognitive theorists believe that human persons are very much involved in their learning process and progress, inasmuch as they take part and are highly responsible in their actions. In sum, cognitivists take mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving as issues of paramount importance (Cognitivism, 2007).It can be noted that the psychological theories thus far cited involve attempts to resolve the tenseness between external and internal forces affecting human behavior. In lot of the foregoing discussions, it seems that the Humanistic psychological perspective can prove to be a theory that can somewhat integrate the conflicting claims of both the Behaviorist and Cognitivist theories. The basic contention of Humanistic perspective lies in see human persons as organisms drawn towards motivational learning. Popular proponents of this theory include A. Maslow, K. Rogers, and M. Knowles (Humanist Theories, 2007).Under this scheme, a persons behavior is taken within the context of his or her aspirations, motivations, needs, and values. And these aspects, if only to argue, stem from the a persons interaction with his or her environment, coupled with an inherent capacity to appropriate these influences into ones own worldview (Moskowitz & Orgel, 1967, p. 340). the like Behaviorism, this theory affirms the crucial role of external influences in the manner a person comes up with value system.Like Cognitivism, this theory also affirms the fact that learning uses reflection(as) guides for active experimentation and the choice of new experience (Humanistic Theories, 2007). Unlike the two theories however, Humanistic psychological science does not confine itself to a more restricted approach to understanding human behavior. Key to understanding th is theory therefore lies in the concept of self-appropriation a process that involves putting into a successful integration both the external and internal aspects of human behavior.ConclusionThis paper now ends with a thought that indeed, the three psychological theories that were discussed hereinabove do manifest distinctive differences. only when two strains of similarities can be drawn between and among them nevertheless. The first points to the fact that all the above cited theories employ scientific methods in arriving at their consecrate contentions.In fact, like most behavioral sciences, Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Humanism rely heavily on scientific methodologies to substantiate their proposed theories. Secondly, it needs to be acknowledged that these theories all contribute to the furthering of knowledge pertinent to the science of human behavior. Despite their differences, their ploughshare to the already rich heritage of the science of psychology seems very patent, i f not all together undeniable.References study Theories Knowledgebase. (2007). Behaviorism. Retrieved from, http// Theories Knowledgebase. (2007). Cognitivism. Retrieved from, Learning Theories Knowledgebase. (2007). Humanist Theories. Retrieved from, Moskowitz, M. and Orgel, A. (1969). General Psychology. A Core Text in Human Behavior. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company.Wozniak, R. (1997). Behaviourism The Early Years. Retrieved from,

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