Tuesday, February 26, 2019
United States Coast Guard
The last ten years has seen substantial changes in the ways the oceans are cosmos used. Incidences of import, piracy, illegal immigration and the growth in global terrorist act move over risen dramatically. This report studies how the lineament of the get together States glide restrain has been refined to deal with these issues and, in position, their youthfully exclamatory role in aegis. We look at the key issues facing this force, which take the recently formed Homeland Security project and evaluate their activities in the fight against act of terrorism and use in foreign campaigns.Our conclusion is that in that location has been a significant change in the slideway safe-conduct role only if that this is a necessary response to the changing face of villainy and terrorism on the oceans. fall in States Coast Guard Their Role in Border Security What is the role of the U. S. Coast Guard in term of take a hop security and how does it carry out that role? This is t he question that we shall be studying at heart this report. Having studied and reoceanrched we the changes to the Coast Guards mission and, in fateicular the reasons and causes that pull in led to their current role in and duties with regard to border security.Amongst the oldest government organization, the U. S. Coast Guard was formed originally under the advert of Revenue Marine. Its history dates back to 1740. Initially its main assign was collecting revenue for the government and to stop smuggling. Over the years its duties and responsibilities take a leak expanded to allow in assisting in distress and rescue, dealing with incidence of thraldom and charting the coastline. Before the U. S. navy blue was formed in 1798, it withal was the simply seabourne-armed force.Over recent years it has become sort of the Department of Homeland, were it is responsible for enforcing the nations laws of the sea and ensuring safety of both vessels and persons. However in wartime its line of command transfers right to the Navy Department. (United States Coast Guard, website 2006). The growing globalization in terms of politics and technical messageization has brought with it an international expansion of crime and terrorist groups.In recent times the Coast Guards role has changed to meet this, with an increased focus on a number of key security areas including smuggling, illegal immigration and, more importantly, the perceived and actual threat from terrorism. As Admiral Allen (2006) points out in his disceptation on the Coast Guard website, this change is an ongoing situation and they set out to remain flexible in their approach to maintain a absolute and impressive proactive and reactionary response to the constantly changing demands of the issues within their remit.Within this document we are concentrating upon four key issues, theft and smuggling, illegal immigration, terrorism and a brief look at the serve well they have provided foreign. theft an d Smuggling Since the first moment homosexual beings invented a form of sea transport, at that place have been those who have seen and seized the opportunity for ill-gotten gains. Indeed, as antecedent stated, smuggling was one of the original reasons for the formation of the Coast Guard.Due to the vast coastline enjoyed by the United States, theft, smuggling and the labour of its prevention, has always played an important part of the Coast Guard duty. With the increase in globalization smuggling of commercial goods has become a more significant line of work. It has been reported that the theft of trade cargo in the United States is a staggering $25 million a year, fifty percent of the universe of discourses total thefts. The lose revenue from smuggled cigarettes alone is estimated to cost the U. S. approaching $2 billion.The problem is exacerbated by the diverse nature of the groups and syndicate behind the thefts. These not only include local geographical groups such as t he Los Angeles street gangs, but those from South America, the Orient and, with the democratization of frequently of the Eastern Bloc countries, Russian Crime gangs as well. (Mario Possamai 2001) In improver to the theft, the Coast Guards also have to deal with the growing problem of shape branded merchandise, among the most general of which are computer software, fashion goods and cosmetics.With the increase in skills and technology in Asia, the Far East and opposite nations, there has been a proliferation of the importation of counterfeit products and the modern quality of reproduction is so high school that detection is bonnie more and more difficult. It is estimated that the cost to United States industry from this source was in the region of $200 million per annum in 2001 and the figure has grown steady from then. The following (figure 1) shows the total number of intellectual property right seizures for the basketball team years to 2000. Table 1 Mario Possamai (2001)By far the worse incidence of smuggling is that involving drugs, across the whole spectrum of the industry. Globally this is adding to the pressures of addiction and some some other, including drug related problem, and in the United States, due to the sheer size of population it is an extremely capacious and difficult problem to deal with. This is one particular area where the Coast Guard can be particularly pleased with their efforts as there seizures during 2002 accounted for 52% of all government seizures in that year, and took off the streets drugs estimated to have a retail value of nearly $4 billion.Another area of responsibility, which because of their more high profile activities, tends to be somewhat overlooked, is the Coast Guards responsibility for protecting their nations piscary industry. With falling stocks world-wide, illegal fishing and theft of catches is on the increase, and the U. S. has not been resistant from this problem. Illegal Immigration Although an inte gral part of the fight against smuggling, because of its human connotations, the part of the trade involving illegal immigrants has taken on a anomalous significance of its own.As a result of its super-power status and the world-wide held perception that the United States is the wealthiest country, it acts as a magnet for people from poorer nations wishing to improve their fortunes and, as a result of this there has followed a growth of crime syndicates who mould in this area, seizing the opportunity for substantial financial rewards. Such gangs have used the income generated to form themselves into extremely well organized, sophisticated and effective organizations.Although the influx of illegal immigrants is a national problem, with the longest border between the worlds richest nation and one of the poorer being the U. S. Mexico divide, by far the largest denseness of activity takes place in this area. The efficiency of the operating gangs and syndicates operating in this busin ess serves to tax the Coast Guards capability to the limit. Many believe that, partly as a result of the demands placed upon it in terms of other security duties, the Coast Guard is failing to win this particular struggle.In his book, putz Andreas (2001) observes that, despite setting up a military type mathematical process in order to concentrate the efforts of border enforcement this 1990s initiative is not achieving its target, which is to reaffirm control over the area. terrorism Since the dramatic and catastrophic results of the phratry 9/11 bams, the Coast Guard has been charged with the additional responsibilities of focusing a reasonable amount of resources to the fight against terrorism. Their duties and responsibilities here are to correspond the United States against any repetition of the September 11th tragedies.(Carolyn and Kit Bonner 2004) condescension the fact that that particular attack was airborne in nature, a seabourne attack is all too possible. For exam ple it is estimated, although as a result of the problems regard with ascertaining positive evidence, that Al Qaeda has an operating fleet of between 15 and 300 vessels. It is already suspected that this terrorist group have been responsible for at least two major seabourne attacks on other vessels, Dr John Daly (2003), distributively capable of inflicting massive damage on United States seaways or rake of weapons of mass destruction through its ports.Following on from the successes of Al Qaeda, the fear is that other international terrorist groups will consider this method as an extension to their stock-taking of effective attacks against the U. S. In John Leanings report (2001), the Coast Guard stated that the value was operating on a much higher state of security alert, even to the extent of preventing public admission price to facilities that, pre 9/11 would have welcomed them. The terrorist threat is not only dependant to groups like Al Qaeda, but can be extended to incl ude those countries with which the United States have serious disputes such as Iran and the insurgents in Iraq.Services overseas Despite being primarily a service dedicated to the guard of its nations own shores and waters, the United States Coast Guard, have ventured further a field when there is a need to and duty calls. In addition it has also worked in collaboration with other nations in the pursuance of its security obligations. With regard to the latter, the recent joint operation with Canada is a case in point. Here the two Coast Guard service worked in unity on a regular basis. This cooperation has extended along both the Atlantic and Pacific coastlines and other mutually important stretches of seaway and lakes.Both of the participating services have said that this operation has been of great value to them and that they have learnt a lot from working together, all of which they hope to put towards their joint and someone security role programs. As a trial operation it was a success in terms of showing how such cooperation could be an effective weapon in the fight against any security incident that arises on the high seas. (Phil Jenkins 2005) Service in Iraq. In addition to working with dwell countries the U. S. Coast Guard has also been called into action with security conflicts in other parts of the world.The most important of these, and certainly the one with the highest profile, occurred during the recent midriff East conflicts with the Gulf Wars. Working under the jurisdiction of the Navy department, it was part of the Coast Guards responsibilities to guard and protect the oil terminals from attack, a duty that has also become part of their responsibilities in their homeland. With the United States Navy occupied in more direct action in the Middle East trading operations of war, it was a huge responsibility for the service. ConclusionAs our research has shown, the United States Coast Guard has an extremely important role to play in the area o f security. This responsibility stretches across the whole spectrum of the American way of life. In protecting the countries commercial organizations from the effects of mechanized theft and incidences of counterfeiting it is contributing to the safeguard of the economic position. With its actions against smuggling, and in particular the human kind, its job it to protect the social conditions and human rights, not only of its own citizens, but also of many of those who are being smuggled into the country.However, by far the most important role that the service plays at this moment in time relates to its activities in the field of terrorism. The attacks of 9/11 graphically showed the scale of human lives that can be muddled and the significant damage to the nations info structure and the affect on a nations moral that such an incidence can have. This task is taking on e real increasing importance as both the growth of terrorist groups, and of unfit nations access to nuclear facilit ies, grows. The difficulties that face both the Coast Guard service and the U.S. government that operates it, is one of funding, facilities and deployment. With terrorists seeming to possess almost unlimited gold just who much of the nations taxes should be committed to this area of operations. Whilst the nation is very conscious of the need for it, there is a limit to the amount that a citizen either can or is willing to invest. Even with the funds available, there comes next the problem of exactly what facilities should those funds be utilized for. Seabourne terrorism is not the only concern.There are other forms of terrorism that need apology and need funds as has been clearly demonstrated. Added to this is the almost unworkable task of deployment. The United States has such a large expanse of coastline that it would be impossible to cover that area effectively. With the fiscal restraints, together with the limitations in terms of manpower, equipment and other resources, the U nited States Coast Guard services perform their remit with a great deal of efficiency and, despite isolated incidences of failure, not inconsiderable success. ReferencesAllen, Admiral Thad. (May 2006). Commandants intent. Retrieved from http//www. uscg. mil/USCG. shtm. Andreas Peter. (2001). Border Games Policing the U. S. Mexico Divide. Cornell University Press. Collins, T (Forward). Bonner, Carolyn & Kit. (2004) Always Ready straight offs US Coast Guard. Motorbooks International, Powerpro series. Daly, Dr John, C, Kay. (2003) Al Qaeda and Maritime Terrorism Part 1, The Jameson Institute, Terrorism Monitor Jenkins, Phil. (2005). U. S. and Canadian Coast Guards working together to spike partnerships. CNN News release.