Saturday, March 9, 2019
Slip of the Tongue in Singing English Songs: a Psycholinguistic Analysis
INTRODUCTION Since situation of the patois is the naturals condition that every star come during his communication experience, mass fin t discover ensemble(prenominal)y turn over galore(postnominal) interpretation toward this phenomenon. In Cambridge Advaced Learners Dictionary slip of the spittle define as a condition when roughlyone says roundthing that they did not mean to say which is office the slip of the spitting is not intentional and it can not follow the true feelings of a someone. On the other(a) hand the opposite definition approach path out from Sigmund Freud which is explain slip of the tongue as a meaningful and construe comments.The utterances coming out as the illustrateation of the reticent or repress intention of the speaker. Both definitions start out their own violence and approval neertheless(prenominal) present, the concern of the query simply limited on the reason or genes that start out slip of the tongue and the relation amon gst daily round/music genre to human ability in producing rowing under psycholinguistics analysis perspective. One condition that everybody have to understand is the research take a special condition. If slip of the tongue usually gamble in typical colloquy in this case slip of the tongue will observed in the sing activities.The reason for this condition is tie in to the concern of the research which will obtain the relation between rhythm/ musik genre to human ability in producing wrangle. So, the research worker go crosswise to it fiver diverse songs in resistent genre to be analyzed and in hive away selective in solveation, observational method and recorcing technique apply while in analyzing the entropy detective used articulatory identity method and presenting the resolvent using in musket ball and formal method. METHODS The data taken from five incline songs which is sing by adult and the object that researcher wishing to hold is the slips of the tongue b y adult in singing those songs.In order to find the object of the research rootly the researcher have to find the songs that include into the criteria that explained in the back demonstrate of the research. In this case, the researcher have to wangle a questionn variante to collect some information about the genre and the popular vocaliser and songs that experiencen by the participant. and so after collecting those information the researcher have to beguile five songs that included into the chategories by collecting the to the highest degree similar answer by the participants. After collecting five songs as the in like mannerls of the bservation,the researcher conduct to record the songs that is sing by the participants so, if we relate it to Sudaryantos book (1988) the method used by researcher in collecting the data is observation and the technique used is recording. yet in devining the tools of the data researcher need to use questionn publicizee as the technique. This r esearch included into descriptive qualitative research because the data were collected in the form of utterances that bring up by the second singer (adult) and the representation of the research is in the form of words.Due to this research purpose argon to find the bods and operators of slip of the tongue that cause slip of the tongue by adult as the second singer while singing a song so, the reseacher will use descriptive research because it designed to obtained information concerning the current status of the phenomenon and directed toward determind the spirit of the situation as it exists at the while of the research in the proficient out of qualitative methode (Ary 1972259) Differ from quantitative research, this research will concern on the complex and larger concentration.The researcher of qualitative research have to give a meaning for the phenomenon holisticaly and need to play arole in the whole bidding (Sudarwan, 2002). The research it ego will approve the phenome non with the perspective of the researcher so, thither should be a methode used to analyze the data taken. Lately many expert use triangulation method to analyze the data. This methode is a study aplication that used mul measurethodic for analyze the similar phenomenon, (Denzin,1989 in Sudarwan, 2002). tally to Denzin and Kimchi in that respect argon five types of triangulation suppositious triangulation, triangulation data, metodological triangulation,investigator triangulation and triangulation analysis (Sudarwan,200238). Then this research will focus only abstractive triangulation which is means that the researcher will combine some theory from the different aspects of linguistics such as psycholinguistics, phonology, morphology and syntactic perspective to analyzing the data.After analyzing the data, researcher present the result of analysis by using the informal and formal method. Informal method is a way of presenting the findings by using a verbal statement (natural la guage) while a formal method is a way of presenting the analysis by using signs and symbols (artificial expression). THEORY In linguistics, language production is the production of spoken or written language. It describes all of the sets between a concept and translating the concept into linguistic form. Levelt, 1989) As Fromkin and Ratner (1998) argued when we leavend an utterance there is a correspondence between our thought and wishes which stock the subject plainly when the storage space of the brain is finite we may never produce a number of the infinete decl be. From those exposition we know that we must construct sentences from smaller parts or wholes before we atomic number 18 able to say them. The principal(prenominal) issues wherefore concern on the fulfilles by which units come to be selected and then combined in a particular order. (Gleason and Ratner 1998) The production of spoken language involves three major takes of acting.The prototypal is conceptua lization. The speaker must decide the message to be conveyed. It is also called the preverbal message or the message aim of representation. This layer is often represented by a thought bubble. It means that this level connects the intention to speak and the concepts to be verbally expressed. (Levelt 1989) On the other hand, Jaeger (20058) proposed this stage which also includes not only general and specific world noesis but also the speakers knowledge about the linguistics pragmatic conventions of their run-in community.Therefore speakers must take account of what they called the common ground. The common ground between two people consists of their mutual beliefs, expectations, and knowledge. If someone overhears a conversation between two friends, it can be very hard to follow, because s/he has a lack common ground. The second level is formulation. Levelt (1989) state that the speaker must convert their message into a linguistic form. The process of formulation is the creation of the linguistics form of the base meant to be expressed.This process also known as the processes of grammatical encoding, starting from lexical member selection which is activate the message and it includes semantic and syntactic properties. (Jaeger, 20058) Then, the last is union / execution. The speaker have to make a plan of the motor movements to convey the message. It also involves detailed phonetic and articulatory planning (Levelt, 1989). Errors in Articulator computer programme According to Clark and Clark (1977), there ar types of errors decease with a number of different linguistics units.In some cases, a single phoneme is added,deleted, or moved, but at other times, it may be sequence of phonemes, morphemic,affixes and root, whole words, or blush phrases. As general rule, errors tend to occur at only one linguistics level per utterance. That is, when a person clear says the abuse word, as in substitutions, the syntactic structure of the sentence, prosodicstruc ture, and phonological structure remain intact. According to Fromkin and Ratner (1998) such errors in production is called speech error. It regularly occurs in normal conversation. A speech error is a purpose that differs from some modular pattern.Speech errors are common among nestlingren who have yet to refine their speech, and can frequently continue into adulthood. They sometimes lead to embarrassment and betrayal the speakers regional or ethnic origins. However, it is also common for them to enter the popular culture as a kind of linguistic flavoring. There are ix types of speech error silent pauses, Filled pauses, repeats, false starts (unretraced), False starts (retraced), Interjections, Stutters, Slips of the tongue. after on this research will not discuss all of the kind of the speech error but just focus on slip of the tongue.According to Fromkin (in Clark, 1977) slips of the tongue have occurred when the speakers utterance differs in some way from the intended uttera nce. Jaeger (2005) defined slips of the tongue as one-time error in speech production planning that is the speakers intends to utters a certain word, phrase, or sentence but in the middle of planning process the utterances came out of the utter differ from the intended words which want to say. Freud argued that slip of the tongue is in which a mistake in speech reveals something of the nature of the speakers unconscious or semi-conscious desires.He proposes that when somebody misspeak, it is an unintended expression of thoughts or feelings. Freud would argue that slips of the tongue were never accidents, that they always revealed some underlying unconscious or repressed need to whim. In Freuds mind, this verbal slip could not have been unintended or based on any explanation other than the inbred condition of suppression he had proposed. Further to a greater extent(prenominal), this suppression of intent or impulse which they made in the cornerstone of all slips of the tongue co uld operate at three different levels.On one level, the suppression could be conscious and moot on another suppression, it can be identified afterward by the person who made the slips but was not intended beforehand, and at the deepest level the person absolutely denies the suppression. For Freudians, it really does not matter what level the person made a slip of the tongue is operating at. For them in all cases, the slip is the results of the conflict between two forces-the underlying unacceptable need and the tendency to keep it hidden. According to Dell (as cited in Paulisse, 1999), slips of the tongue unintended,nonhabitual deviations from a speech plan.Slips of the tongue happened in three levels Those are in leaden errors, morpheme errors, and word errors. Sound errors are accidental interchanges of phonates between words such as snow flurries might be find out flow snurries. Morpheme errors are accidental interchanges of morphemes between words. For face self-destruct in struction might die selfinstruct last. Word errors are accidental transpositions of words. For example Writing a earn to my stupefy might contract Writing a mother to my earn. Major types of slips of the tongue according to Carol . careen In Shift one speech segment dissapears from it appropriate location and appears somewhere else. standard Thats so shell be ready in case she decide to hits it (decides tohit it) score its (gets it) 2. Exchange In effect,double shift, in which two linguistic units exchange. sample Fancy getting your model renosed (getting your nose remodeled) writing a mother to my letter (writing a letter to my mother) slicely thinned (thinly sliced) 3. Anticipation occur when a later segment takes the place of an earlier one. Example Bake my cps (take my bike) eading list (reading list) sky is in the sky (sun is in the sky) 4. Perseveration lead when a earlier segment replaces a later item. For instance He pulled a pantrum (tantrum) beef needle (bee f noodle) 5. Addition A unit is added for example I didnt explain this clare fully enough (carefully enough) to strained it (to strain it) 6. extirpation A unit is deleted. For instance selfsame(prenominal) sate (same state) Ill just get up and mutter intelligibly (unintelligibly) 7. electric switch A unit is changed into a different unit. Example At low speeds its too light (heavy) 8. BlendBlend occur when two speech units are combined. For instance That child is looking to be spaddled (spanked/paddled). The thing that we have to considered here is slip of the tounge is a condition where the utterance is not utter correcty based on the idea of the speaker. In this case the proces of producing sounds was broken in the last phase ( vox phase) where human produce the sound to speaking. So, based on the reality in a higher place in analysing the data we have to combining some linguistics brances and in this case the are psycholinguistic, phonology and morphology and also synta x. ANALYSISFrom the explanation preceding(prenominal) here are some data taken from the participant when they are singing English song. tabularise 1 TitleIf I Die juvenility If I Die Young Singer The band PerrySecond Singer (Indonesian) GenreRockRock Lyrics The crisply knife of a short life, well Ive had, just enough time. (1a) The precipitously knife of a short life, well Ive have, just enough time. (1b) From the tabel supra we can canvas that Ive had Ive have had have /h? d//h? v/ Both of /d/ and /v/ in the table of phonetic symbols take place as fricatives, flat and voiced. Nevertheless d included as the sound in dental dental consonant while v in the labio dental sounds.So, in this case a dental alveolar sound changed by a labio dental sound. Table 2 TitleMake Me StrongMake Me strong SingerSami YusufSecond Singer (Indonesian) GenreNasyidNasyid LyricsMy lord betoken me right from vituperate contact me light make me strong I know the passageway is long make me strong (2 a)My lord show me right from wrong Give me right make me strong I know the itinerary is long make me strong (2b) Based on the data in a higher place the change is happen on sentence 2a Give me light replaced by the Give me right in the 2b sentence Give me light Give me right light right /lait//rait/Both /l/ and /r/ are voiced liquids sounds in dental alveolar thing that make them differ is the position of producing the sounds /l/ take place in lateral and /r/ in the central. Table 3 TitleMy boob Will Go OnMy Heart Will Go On SingerCeline DionSecond Singer (Indonesian) GenrePopPop LyricEverynight in my dreams (1) I nail you, i feel you That is how I know you go on uttermost across the distance And spaces between (2) us You have come to show you go on (3a)Everynight in my times (1) I see you, i feel you That is how I know you go on Far across the distance And spaces minween (2) usYou have come to show you go on (3b) from the tabel we get that 3a. 1 becomes 3b. 1 and 3a. 2 changes into 3b. 2 for clearence let we see the explanation below. 3a. 1 Everynight in my dreams Everynight in my times 3b. 1 dreams times / driems/ /taims/ 3a. 2 And spaces between usAnd spaces minween us between minween /bitwien//minwien/ /b/ is a billabial relegate voiced sound meanwhile /m/ is billabial nasal voiced sound then /t/ is dental alveolar chip voiceless sound and /n/ is dental alveolar nassal voiced sound.Both changes happen in the same place such as /b/ replace by /m/ which are take place in billabial but /b/ is embarrass but /m/ is nassal then the next /t/ replace by /n/ both are in dental alveolar but /t/ stop voiceless and /n/ nasal voiced. Table 4 TitleLove StoryLove Story SingerTaylor SwiftSecond Singer GenreCoun sieveCountry LyricWe were both young when i first apothegm you I shut my eyeball and the flashback starts (1) Im stand there on a balcony in summer air (2) throw the lights, see the party, the ball gowns (3) See you make your way by means of the crowd And say how-do-you-do Little did i know (4) (4a)We were both young when i first saw you I close my eyes and the Flash starts (1) Im standing there on a Galcony in summer air (2) See the lights, see the party, the ball gains (3) See you make your way through the crowd And say hello Little i know (4) (4b) In this song the researcher find 4 changes toward the song. They are 4a. 1 replaced by 4b. 1 I close my eyes and the flashback starts I close my eyes and the Flash starts flashback flash /fl? syb? k//fl? sy/ 4a. 2 replaced by 4b. 2Im standing there on a balcony in summer air Im standing there on a Galcony in summer air balcony galcony /b? lkenie/ /g? lkenie/ /b/ is a billabial stop voiced sound which is replaced by /g/ palatal stop voiced. 4a. 3 replaced by 4b. 3 See the lights, see the party, the ball gowns See the lights, see the party, the ball gains gowns gains /gawns//geins/ 4a. 4 replaced by 4b. 4 Little did i know Little i know After explaning the changes above, now the rese archer try to clasified the problems into the kinds of slip of the tongue. 1. Deletion Deletion is a kind of slip of the tongue where one item are deleted in the data above we find it in the data number 4. (4a. 1 replaced by 4b. 1) I close my eyes and the flashback starts become I close my eyes and the Flash starts here(predicate) flashback becomeflash which is means back are deleted The next data is 4a. 4 that replaced by 4b. 4 Little did i know become Little i know . In this sentence did are deleted 2. Substitution Ive had, just enough time become Ive have, just enough time Everynight in my dreams become Everynight in my timesGive me light make me strong become Give me right make me strong And spaces between us become And spaces minween us Im standing there on a balcony in summer air become Im standing there on a Galcony in summer air See the lights, see the party, the ball gowns become See the lights, see the party, the ball gains These half a dozen data are included in substit ution class because all of them get a consonant error or vowel eror such as 4a. 3 replaced by 4b. 3 ow replaced by ai gowns gains /gawns//geins/ Then other get a phological error such as 4a. 2 replaced by 4b. 2 /b/ replaced by /g/ balcony galcony b? lkenie/ /g? lkenie/ For the replaced of the sounds the pattern are not define yet because each people has their own problem in replacing the sound and it is need much data for defining the pattern of the replacing phonemes. Nevertheless the reason that deviate the second singer get slip of the tongue could be contemplate based on some theory from the expert. Before executing an utterance we have to make a plan in our brain first. A speaker shits up a general structure for the discourse, form a skeleton for the sentence to be uttered and select words to fit the skeleton constituent by constituent.In speaking, people take already theorize plan and execute them but not all goes well in every speech. In practice, they have fundamental p roblems. First, they have formulated their plans fully before they begin their execution. For this reason, they often speak fast and start to make variety of speech error. Second, in final preparation for execution, they must build an articulator program, a plan in working memory that tells the articulator muscles what to do them (Clark and Clark 1977) Clark also says that the planning takes time and more time on some occasions than others.The more knotty the planning, the more time it should take and the more likely speech itself will be disrupted. Then, when slip of the tongue occurs here are some figures that influence it 1. Cognitive Difficulty The first factor of planning difficulty is called cognitive difficulty. Taylor in Clark and Clark (1977), conducts a study in which people were asked to produce as quickly as possible a sentence on topic like car, animal, pleasure, and dominance some of these are concrete objects (car and animal) and others are abstract (pleasure and do minance).It took people longer to produce the first word of the sentence from an abstract than from the concrete one. Furthermore, it took them longer to develop a sentence skeleton for an abstract topic. 2. Situational Anxiety Situational concern is the second factor of slips of the tongue. When we talk about topics that we are anxious about, we tend to produce more silent pauses and certain other speech errors. One possibility is that anxiety disturbs the planning and execution processes generally. If speakers become tense, their planning and execution become less efficient.Another possibility is that what the speakers talk about is simply more difficult cognitively when s/he is anxious. It may be very difficult to babble the more time planning, groping, for just the right words. Under this alternative anxiety, pauses have the same source as the pauses of any other cognitively difficult talk (Clark and Clark 1977). The same cases also happen when people singing a song. When the song is beaten(prenominal) and interest the singer the process of production the words will easier than the one who does not.Then the frequency of error will higher in in the singer who does not like the songs. 3. Social Factors The next factor that influences slips of the tongue is the companionable factors. Under the pressures of conversations, the speaker must take clearly whether they still have something to say or they are finished. On other hand, there are some factors that errors can occur. Those are low self confidence and the environment factor which in this case is family (Wirawan, Seputar Indonesia No. one hundred thirty-five/1 Sunday 14th May 2006). Here, the pressure coming out from the music.The music itself has a rhythm which is conducting the repetition of the sounds in the certain pattern or design. Then the next is the tempo of the music which is defines as the time or the speed of the song. Then the last one is the sound of the singer which influences the secon d singer to duplicate their pronunciations while singing. CONCLUSION Slip of the tongue define as a condition when someone says something that they did not intend to say which is means the slip of the tongue is not intentional and it cannot represent the true feelings of a person.On the other hand the opposite definition coming out from Sigmund Freud which is explains slip of the tongue as a meaningful and interpreted utterances. The utterances coming out as the representation of the restrained or repressed intention of the speaker. Nevertheless in this research most of slip that occur usually coming out because the second singer feels very familiar with the sound and produce it without paying too much attention or the opposite reason is the song is not familiar so the singer trying very hard to understand the meaning and try to model the first singer and the result is s/he get a big pressure while singing.For sure, those reasons are explained in the three factors that influence th e occurrence of slip of the tongue cognitive difficulty, situational anxiety, and the last one is social factors. Then the kind of error/slip of the tongue that is occurring mostly are deletion and substitution because the most reason for the slip of the tongue are the pressure and the interest toward the song. REFERENCES Chomsky, N 1975, Reflections of oral communication, innovative york Pantheon books. Clark, H. I. And Clark, E. V. 1977. Psychology an Language.An introduction of Psycholinguistics. New York Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. Eugene A,Nida. 1963. MorphologyThe Descriptive Analysis of Words 2nd ed. Canada The University of dough Press. Fromkin, A. and Ratner, N. 1993. Speech Production IN Gleason, J. and Ratner, N. (eds) Psycholinguistics, London Harcourt Brace Gleason, J. and Ratner, N. 1998. Psycholinguistics, Second variance London Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. Hamman. 2006. Speech errors found in the speech delivered by the students of BEC (Basic E nglish Course).Unpublished Strata One Thesis, UIN Malang University, Malang, Jawa timur. Jaeger, J. 2005. KIDS SLIPS What Young Childrens Slips of the Tongue Reveal About Language Development. Department of Linguistics and Center for Cognitive Science University at cow The State University of New York Mahwah, NJ. Publication, 1st May 2009 Levelt, W. (1989. ) Speaking From Intention to Articulation. Cambridge, MA MIT Pr, 1st May 2009 Shadily,Hasan and John M. Echols. 1975. An English-Indonesian Dictionary. 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