Saturday, August 31, 2019
Introduction PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s (1979) five forces theory highlights market entry barriers as one of constraints in establishing a new business. Investigating market entry barriers for McLaren enables us to assess the level of competition and the possible barriers hindering the progress of McLaren in the mass car industry. As McLaren began diversification in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s it helped them greatly in averting market entry barriers to through economies of scale. By branching out into different industries such as McLaren racing and McLaren automotive, McLaren was able to benefit greatly from economies of scale. This has aided McLaren with their high capital investment requirement for establishing a mass car producing company. As a high value vehicle, to purchase the parts and have the McLaren consumer car manufactured would be extremely expensive. However, Mclaren entered the mass car market as part of its diversification strategy which has allowed the company to utilized same value chain for its consumer car equipment. Therefore, the initial high investment capital barrier required for the market entry was successfully mitigated by McLaren. Apart from the huge capital investment requirement, product differentiation is also one of the market entry barriers in the mass car market. McLaren overcame this barrier quite easily because it already had established brand equity and a loyal clientele. McLaren is a known worldwide for its formula one racing team in high regards so establishing new businesses under its brand name wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t difficult. McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s cars were easily differentiated from other high end car producers due to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s already established brand image. (Fahri, K & Michael, J. 1989) Another barrier to market entry within the car industry is the distribution channels. McLaren was not required to establish its distribution channel for consumer cars because it did not produce them in large numbers and most of its cars were purchased by car enthusiasts who keenly south after the brand. The strategic Ã¢â¬ËpullÃ¢â¬â¢ strategy for marketing its small number of high end consumer cars averted its needs to establish a distribution and sales channel (Terpstra, 1994). Another entry barrier to the mass car market and an important one is the requirement of consumer cars to adhere to safety specification and environment epscification. . The automotive industry is subject to government rules and regulations that include the vehicle safety and environmental matters. Vehicle safety is to ensure that each car that is supplied is safe for the driver and its passengers at all times. Environmental matters include emission levels to reduce the damage each vehicle creates to destroy our environment. McLaren has its own research and development centres and state of art test facilities and production plant where it could develop, implement and monitor its car performance in accordance with the legal requirements. The Level of Diversification Achieved by McLaren According to Ansoff (1957), there are four basic corporate strategies for growth. These are market penetration; market development; product development and diversification (see fig1). Fig.1 The first three growth strategies require a firm to change its product and/or market structure. Unlike these three, the forth growth strategy i.e. diversification requires a change in the characteristics of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product line and/or market. Diversification Ã¢â¬Å"calls for a simultaneous departure from the present product line and the present market structureÃ¢â¬ (Ansoff, 1957, p.114). Pertaining to this growth strategy classification, venturing of McLaren into several distinct businesses can be classified as its diversification strategy. Over the years, McLaren has ventured into several distinct businesses. These are: McLaren Racing involves formula one racing team that competes in formula one racing. This business focuses mainly on the racing team of the company. McLaren Racing sets out to be one of the best known formula one team in the world. McLaren Racing has established its brand by pocketing 181 Grand Prix victories (William, 2009). McLaren Automotive is a business that designs and builds super cars made for the mass consumers. McLaren road cars are designed to meet the high expectations in terms of speed, performance and endurance. As a worldwide brand, McLaren Automotive aims to not only produce the best automotive vehicles but to continuously Ã¢â¬Ëraise the benchmark in automotive designÃ¢â¬â¢ (McLaren, 2013). McLaren Electronic Systems (MES) creates electronic control systems for the McLaren Racing team. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s electronic systems are used in formula one vehicle for various telemetry and sensory systems. The company also creates electronic control units for other teams in the motorsport industry to use across Europe and North America. (McLaren, 2013) McLaren Applied Technologies (MAT) focuses on supplying the best technology to boost the technical support in world of sports and to enhance the performance of McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s formula one vehicles. McLaren Applied Technologies has continued to boost McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation as the Ã¢â¬Ëforefront of British engineering and technologyÃ¢â¬â¢ (McLaren, 2013). MAT has helped worldwide sports by providing technology to help improve the efficiency of the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in the best way possible. This could be something as simple as providing mountain bikes that weigh less without hindering the efficiency of the bike. Absolute Taste is engaged in hospitality and event management business. It serves food to McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s customers and fans at formula one race. Absolute Taste also provides a catering service and hospitality to upper class customers around the world. They also organise events and the serve various cuisines to cater its global customers (McLaren, 2013).McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s Horizontal DiversificationThe aforementioned diversification strategies of McLaren can be categorized as either related or un-related diversification strategies. Related diversification strategies can be further divided into three categories as horizontal, vertical and cross-sector diversification (Charles et. al, 2010). These related diversification strategies differ due to their different combination of industry similarity and value chain similarity (see fig 2). Horizontal diversification pertains to a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s venturing into a new field which uses the same value chain as its core business and falls withi n the same industry. Considering this definition, McLaren has not diversified horizontally as it has not acquired any other formula one racing teams. Fig.2 (Source: Charles et, al. 2010, p. 296)McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s Vertical DiversificationVertical diversification refers to a diversification initiative within the same industry, but one which uses a different value chain than that of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s core business. (Charles et, al. 2010). McLaren diversified vertically through its automotive business as it operates within the same industry but has different customers and marketing channels. Likewise, McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s electronic systems and applied technology business can be termed as vertical diversification as it operates within the same (formula one racing) industry, but it requires a distinct value chain i.e. production, distribution and customer network (McLaren, 2013).McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s Cross Sector DiversificationCross sector diversification occurs refers to diversification within a different industry, but one which has a same value chain (Charles et, al. 2010). McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s venturing into the catering, hospitality and event mana gement business (Absolute Taste) can be classified as cross-sector diversification. Absolute Taste shareÃ¢â¬â¢s the same value chain as McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s core business as it is an extension of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s own marketing activities and thus uses the same managerial and other resources. However, Absolute Taste also operates in a complete different hospitality industry; a field completely different from car racing business. Similalry, McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s applied technologies can be termed as cross-sector diversification in that it also operates in other industries such as medical science apart and sports (other than car racing).McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s Unrelated DiversificationUnrelated diversification is referred to a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s engagement in a completely un-related business (Charles et, al. 2010). McLaren, diversification strategies so far do not include any un-related diversification as the company achieves economies of scale and synergies through all of its diversification strateg ies. McLaren has developed this portfolio of companies to boost the GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation and to expand. The development of the production centre improved McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s chances of increasing economies of scale. By having so many of the McLaren companies being managed under the same roof, it allows each company to make the most of tangible and intangible resources and materials that wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been used otherwise (McLaren, 2013). The joint use of inputs means that different McLaren subsidiaries share the transaction cost of machinery and other possible production costs for the vehicles that are produced. Once the McLaren production centre was built, it meant that the internal process of vehicle production would change. Within the production centre research is continuously gathered on how to improve the general performance of McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s Racing and Automotive vehicles. As the car is built they can then send it off to be spray painted by hand within the same facility which not only saves time but reduces errors that may have been made on the paint work by machines. Managerial ambition is the drive of many businesses. McLaren has a reputation to withhold as the Ã¢â¬Ëforefront of British engineeringÃ¢â¬â¢ (McLaren, 2013). McLaren are always attempting to produce the best. By diversifying into so many subsidiaries it creates new targets for the groups as a whole. The diversification strategy allows the company to increase its business profile and spread risks accordingly. McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s Diversification strategy as a Reflection of Historical Trends in Corporate Strategy Throughout the midst of 20th century till the early 1990s, there were several dominant logics of strategic management. During 1950s, there was an emphasis on general management skills, along with widespread un-related diversification moves by corporates. It was followed by the prevalence of requiring specific management skills for different industries in the 1970s and 1980s. This was coincided with the requirement of portfolio planning. It was not until 1990s, that the focus of management practitioners and academics was led to prevailing themes of core competencies and dominant management logic view to achieve synergies through growth and diversification strategies (Goold and Luchs, 1993). During this time (i.e. 1990s) McLaren embarked upon its diversification initiative as part of its growth strategy. McLarenÃ¢â¬â¢s growth strategy precisely coincided with the prevailing business view of achieving synergies through diversification. Once the new McLaren production centre was built it allowed McLaren Automotive to increase their daily production and enabled them to introduce new road cars such as the MP4-12C sports car. The production centre has not only boosted the production rates but has also got a production line which allows McLaren to test its vehicles (Fosters plus partners, 2013). The production centre is also connected to the McLaren technology centre which is Ã¢â¬Ëconnected by a subterranean walkway, lined with interactive exhibition spacesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Fosters plus partners, 2013). This connection allows the technology centre to provide for the McLaren Automotive department by coming up with new McLaren electronic systems for their vehicles. With the producti on centre in place it allows the diversification of the McLaren industries to take advantage of the ability to share machinery. With the connection of the Production centre and the Technology centre it allows McLaren to develop new technology to be used by MES for McLaren Automotive and McLaren Racing to use in their formula one vehicle. To either improve the vehicle performance in some way or to generally improve the safety of the racing car. Absolute taste provides food for the McLaren racing team and other clients such as Mercedes-Benz at all grand Prix races worldwide (McLaren, 2013). Igor Ansoff defined synergy as Ã¢â¬ËExploitation of similarities between different lines. Two plus two equals fiveÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ansoff, 1957). This analogy is saying that when similar industries combine such as McLaren Racing and McLaren Automotive it increases the production levels beyond the predicted rate. This synergy was improved greatly once McLaren has built the new Production centre. It allow ed the McLaren group to all operate in the same vicinity roof which inevitably improves synergy amongst the different industries. All of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s resources are at the disposal of whoever wishes to use it. References Ansoff, I. (1957) Strategies for Diversification. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 35 Issue 5. Charles E., Bamford, G. and West, P (2010). Strategic Management. Cengage Learning. Fostering plus Partners, (2013) Projects:McLaren Technology Center Available from http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/mclaren-technology-centre/ (cited on 5th, March, 2013) Goold, M. and Luchs, K. (1993) Why Diversify: Four Decades of Management Thinking. Academic of Management Executive. Vol. 7 No. 3 McLaren (2013) Vodafone McLaren Mercedes. Available from http://www.mclaren.com/formula1/page/mclaren-group (cited on 5th, March, 2013) Nye, D. (1988) McLaren: The Grand Prix, Can-Am and Indy Cars. Guild Publishing. Porter, M.E. (1979) How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy, Harvard Business Review, March/April 1979. Terpstra, V. (1994). International Marketing, USA: The Dryden Press William, T. (2009). McLaren Ã¢â¬â The Cars 1964Ã¢â¬â2008. Coterie Press.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The Lifebuoy story dates back to 1895 when it first entered the Indian market. Ã¢â¬Å"Life buoy' literally meaner the life-saving buoy thrown out to people at sea to prevent them from drowning. This is where the brand got its name from. Lifebuoy is a product of Hindustan Milliner Limited (HULL), India. It was initially launched with the sole intention of targeting men and everything sporty. Ã¢â¬Å"Attendants ski rakish kart ha Lifebuoy' captured the essence of their campaign brilliantly.The premise was made clear. Use lifebuoy and stay strong. The quintessential red chunky bar of soap became synonymous with masculine health and good value for money. The same brand positioning was maintained for more than 100 years. However, sales started dipping in the sass's with the coming of other beauty soaps like Lax, Senator etc. The consumers suddenly had more options and Lifebuoys existing market strategy had nothing new to make the consumers stay loyal to the brand.Also, times had changed an d now women were the decision makers in the family as far as shopping for commensurable household products were concerned. The need of the hour for Lifebuoy as a brand was to become more family oriented in its approach mostly focusing on the health aspect. A brand image built over 100 years had to be changed. The task at hand was challenging but the plunge was taken and the brand was repositioned in 2002. The product was transformed from the traditional masculine bar and given a more curvy look.The carbonic smell was substituted by perfume fragrance. The focus now was on a complete bathing experience for the family and the new tagging Ã¢â¬Å"Kay pap lifebuoy SE Mahayana KayÃ¢â¬ did complete Justice to the cause. After this re-launch, Lifebuoys market share in the bath soap sector rose from to 18%. 2002 also saw the launch of aerogram aimed to educate people in rural India about the good health practices and basic hygiene habit of washing hands. The initiative wanted to challenge the age old notion of Missile clean is safe cleanÃ¢â¬ .The brand USPS of providing better protection from germs compared to other soaps along with a strong social message came across as an impressive marketing strategy. The focus has gradually and decisively shifted to healthy hand wash habits as being the main focus of the Lifebuoy brand. Clinical tests were conducted in 2007-2008 that proved how by following the Lifebuoy way washing hands at five key occasions during the day), diarrhea in target children were reduced by 25% and they had 40% less days off school due to illness as was the case earlier.The result of all this has been a complete makeover of the brand from a masculine brand to a family soap which promises mothers a germ free environment for their children. Lifebuoy has time and again came across as one of the more innovative brands across sectors. In the tsunami of branding unleashed at the Mama Gumbo in Allahabad, Lifebuoy came up with the memorable ploy of embossin g assuages about the benefits of washing hands on rot's, after tying up with some popular local Dhabi.Taking this forward, it now aims to change the hand washing behavior of 1 Billion people by 201 5. The ideology remains the same. It wants to promote hand washing with soap at key occasions in the day to reduce infections and and adopted Together village in Madhya Pradesh to help every child living there reach their fifth birthday. This initiative has been widely publicized on the social media to create awareness and to strengthen the support for the cause.All this has n turn lead to further establishment of Lifebuoy as a brand that aims to make a difference to the society and bring about a change in the hygiene habits. In terms of market share, Lifebuoy is today pegged at 12. 1%, a close second to Lax at 12. 8%. (Ironmonger). The future seems bright and promising.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Organizational Communication Unit 4 - Essay Example Perhaps the most fundamental of these is organizational cultureÃ¢â¬ (National Defence University) Organizational communication and culture has definite relationships. It is easy to understand the communication processes in an organization if the organizational culture analyzed properly. Organizational communication is meant for the improvement of organizational life and its output. Ã¢â¬Å"Research in social psychology has demonstrated that people often act out the roles in which they are placed. Various types of symbols elicit this behaviour. Many difficult and abstract issues in organizations are shrouded in discussions of dress codes, employment and product advertising, annual reports, logos, titles, or other organizational symbolsÃ¢â¬ (Rafaeli & Worline) All the above organizational symbols are directly or indirectly revealing the organizational culture. Apart from the parameters mentioned above, location of various offices of different authority levels, display items both i n and outside the organizations, space allocations for different entities of organization, different methods employed for communication, the tone of the languages used in employee communications - all have definite relationships with the organizational culture. Space management or space allocation is important for an organization since effective management of the organizational activities can be accomplished through the judicious utilization of space. I have worked in a tire manufacturing unit for about 5 years and have a better idea about the functioning of this organization with respect to organizational culture and communication. This organization has three separate divisions for the tire manufacturing plant. Division A was meant for the mixing purpose, Division B for the green tire building and Division C for curing process. Each division has lot of machineries and
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Substandard Prenatal Care - Essay Example Both Latin America and Mexico are developing nations that have a modern economy that is encompassed in a rural peasant population. Mexico and Latin America are influenced by the forces of economics, politics, and cultural traditions that contribute to a rate of pregnancy problems and infant mortality that significantly exceeds their neighbors in North America. The issue of prenatal care is an issue that has several relevant aspects. It is a woman's issue, and as such has suffered from gender bias that has pervaded the hemisphere due to the impact of religion and its view of women. As with other women's issues, such as breast cancer, funding for prenatal care is often diminished by the male dominated power structure. However, prenatal care is not merely a women's issue as it impacts males and female alike and is an integral part of a healthy family. In the 21st century, prenatal care has become an issue of basic human rights. It addresses the most fundamental units of society (the children) that are incapable of deciding or acting for themselves. Adequate prenatal care is a broad based program that not only delivers a healthy child at birth, but also addresses the needs of the pregnant woman, her nutrition, mental health, and delivery safety. It should include "Safe and clean delivery, early detection and management of sexually transmitted diseases, infections and complications during pregnancy and delivery and taking into account the physiological needs of the newborn baby" (World Health Organization 25). When these interventions are accessible, affordable, and offered to pregnant women, they can have a substantial effect on improving the health of the newborn child and mother. There has been some increased international focus on this issue as it has been recognized that "the vast majority of infant and maternal deaths and disabilities are preventable through high quality care, detection and efficient referral for complications, and access to the essential elements of obstetric care when needed" (Glei, Goldman, and Rodrigue z 3). While these initiatives are helpful, they are impeded by competing social, cultural, and economic factors. The forces that influence the delivery of adequate prenatal care have particularly impacted Latin America and Mexico, our neighbors to the South. Economics, culture, and politics have all taken a toll on this region in regards to health care. While the external influences of diet and the environment contribute to infant mortality, "maternal mortality is almost wholly attributable to a lack of-or poor quality- prenatal, delivery, and puerperal care" (Casas, Dachs, and Bambas 27). These services are difficult for many women to attain due to cultural traditions that have subjugated women and an economic system that has placed prenatal care out of the reach of the masses in this region. Inequalities based on wealth are one of the biggest obstacles that women in the lower economic classes face. In Mexico, less than 10 percent of all the babies born to the lower economic classes are born in a hospital, but this number rises to 90 percent for the upper economic municipalities (Casas, Dachs, and Bambas 31). Countries in Latin America have mediated this figure by mandating a goal of 80 percent of all deliveries be attended by a skilled professional,
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Caves - Assignment Example Even when getting inside a cave on foot, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not always safe. For example, de Villa Luz cave in Mexico which has a white-colored water inside, is full of unhealthy gases, specifically hydrogen sulfide which only bats, which live very up, near the caveÃ¢â¬â¢s ceiling can survive. Even when getting inside a quite safe cave, it seems to be a great danger. As well as the most of Earth surface, caves are made from rocks, particularly from a limestone. Limestone can be deformed, mostly by flowing water, but still itÃ¢â¬â¢s a hard rock and cave visitors can crash themselves, or damage the equipment. Maybe risk worth it, when discovering new wonderful places and filming a documentary program to show to other people, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s odd to see how people risk their lives for a delicious soup. Yet there are caves in Asia, where birds named cave swiftlets live. They build nests, and people risk their lives to get those nests and use for a specific soup cooking. Except birds, caves are highly populated with insects. The cave food chain generally, looks very disgusting. For example, there are caves in Mexico with caveÃ¢â¬â¢s floor almost made of beats. Those beats feed by eating batsÃ¢â¬â¢ excrements, or simply by eating dead bats. Another disgusting example can be found in Waitomo caves. Those caves look very beautiful when taking a panorama view. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s dark there and millions of glowing dots are shining in darkness, like itÃ¢â¬â¢s a starry night. Yet in fact, they are glowing worms that do the shining. From their slim they make nets, generally looking like draperies. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a wormsÃ¢â¬â¢ way to catch a food, primary insects. Remarkably, how beautiful those draperies look from a distant view and how disgusting they are when looking closely. Yet not all cave creatures are so disgusting. There are beautiful crabs, angel fishes and blind salamanders which live
Monday, August 26, 2019
Human Resource Practices, employee voice and quit rate in outsourcing industry in India - Essay Example This paper is written as a research proposal to investigate various issues like Human Resource Practices, Employee Voice and Quit Rate in Outsourcing Industry in India. Since India is a country which is diversified in many ways, thus a unique HRM strategy can not be formulated. The research is conducted to find out the parameters which are required to be considered while formulating HRM strategies for outsourcing businesses in India. The objective of this research is to find out why many employees quit from the outsourcing industry in India. The research will try to make a study as to whether employee quit because of insufficient compensation or any other reasons. The increasing quit rates are actually an important concern of cost for organizations. This is because quit rates increase labor costs (Oi 1962) and at the same time they decrease organizational functioning (Norsworthy and Zabala 1986). According to Freeman and Medoff (1984) industrial relations show that in firms which have a union the quit rate is lesser than when compared to those firms which has no unions. Unions actually in firms are a tool through which the employees can voice their problems and seek better compensation instead of quitting. Arthur (1994) feels that current research on better commitment and high level of performance is in reality a coherent set of human resource (HR) practices. This coherent set can also bring in better performance on the part of the employees according to Ichniowski etal, (1996). High rate of quitting by the employees will sabotage functioning (Alexander, Bloom, and Nuchols 1994; Huselid 1995). Appelbaum et al., (2000) state that better performance patterns comprise those that commit in the accomplishments of the work force and furnish the chance and inducements for employees to utilize those skills efficiently. Ã¢â¬Å"Employee retention is critical to the long term health and success of company
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Sociology (death and Dying) Video Assignment - Essay Example He forced Kitty to go with him. Now that they are in the middle of the epidemic, Kitty and Walter started to bond. Walter was always busy with his medicine, so Kitty then started to go around town and got to teaching music at the local orphanage. It was there that they discovered their common love for children. Kitty then learns that she is pregnant but is unsure of the paternity. A neighboring town with no doctor got infected with the epidemic and the town folk migrated to where the Fanes were. Walter now was attending to more people. He then gets infected and later was dying fast. Kitty nursed her husband until he died. Observation #1: Walter loved Kitty from the start but being forced into the marriage, Kitty felt uncomfortable with him. Add to this their differences in personalities Kitty is bound to break her vows. Concept #1: Kitty came from a wealthy family with a headstrong father. It is possible that her parents forced her to marry because they are excited to have grand children or afraid not have grand children at all. Her parents had the idea that a bigger family would be make everyone happy thus arranging the marriage. (Lecture 4, Pre-Modern Consequent Social Conditions) Concept #2: It is known that one major cause of death in pre-modern societies is epidemic diseases (Lecture 5, Causes of Death is Pre-Modern Societies). This is the case in the small town in China where Walter volunteered. This is the work he wants despite of the risks (Lecture 6, Reasons Why Women Live Longer). Observation #3: Kitty becomes worried after being informed that they are going to a Chinese town with a cholera epidemic. She thinks that being in the hot zone "surely not a place for women. To avoid going, she comes to an agreement with Walter to get divorced and ask Charlie to divorce his wife so that she and Charlie could be together. She lost hope when Charlie declined. Concept #3: Kitty got the "mean world" syndrome (DeSpelder andStrickland, Mean World Syndrome). The idea of being in a god forsaken town coupled with Walter wanting to divorce her with the grounds of adultery would destroy her name if not kill her and it drives her to do make impulsive and irrational decisions. Observation #4: Upon arrival on the Chinese town, Kitty was surprised that she wasn't inoculated for cholera. She knew that is was a deadly disease but did not know how it kills. She then was told that cholera kills within 36 hours through dehydration and diarrhea. Concept #4: Kitty was just forced into the center of the epidemic, but if she had better informed, she might have come up with an alternative. Her lack of medical knowledge (Lecture 5, Epidemic Causes) led to her being exposed to the reality of the situation. The best that happened was being educated with health care. Observation #5: A guard was assigned to Kitty as precaution against the Chinese nationalists. Another reason for this was to limit her to the house while Walter tended to the sick. Concept #5: Pre-modern people did not have the concept of equality of the sexes. The assumption that Kitty was frail and incapable of self defense then followed. Men are also assumed to take more risks (Lecture 6, Reasons Why Women Live Longer), thus the male guard guarding the lady. Observation #6: Drinking water is taken from
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Stochastic Finance - Assignment Example (a). Using Yahoo finance I settled on three companies; AAC Holdings, Inc., 1347 Capital Corp. and Alexco Resource Corp traded at NYSE, NASQAD and AMEX respectively and obtained daily closing stock prices for each company for six consecutive weeks commencing 13th April 2015 to 22nd May 2015. (see excel calculations) (b). The table in the appendix 1 also shows the results of the calculation for the logarithmic daily changes in the closing stock price for each of the three companies for six consecutive weeks. The formula; The curve shown in the graph above clearly indicates the performance in the stock markets. The daily closing stock prices for AAC Holdings, Inc, a company in the NYSE markets tends to be stable by showing a regular trend in growth over the first few weeks. The growth rate however slows down in the last weeks. As compared to the scenario in AAC Holdings, Inc, the trend here is a steady upward growth till the end. This pattern in growth however cannot be reliably adopted to predict the future state of the stock price for 1347 Capital corp. Investors without proper analysis can easily be lured to invest in such stocks since they promise high level of returns in a short time but can also drop in value drastically. Alexco Resource Corp though in a different stock market (AMEX) has the lowest stock prices with an average of$ 0.41. At this price Investors are attracted to invest but only when the trend in growth is consistent. This case proves the same as the stock prices keep on going up for the entire six week period. Inflation weakens the value of the local currency against the foreign currency in other words foreign exchange (Ross, S. 2003). A general rise in prices for most of the products means that the input prices for production of various goods and services are rising. In this case market analysts and fund managers will always consider the net impact on the margin of the entity that they are tracking. Sometimes
Friday, August 23, 2019
Global Health and Turkey - Essay Example Global Health and Turkey This effort by the government is a good healthcare move because in Turkey cardiovascular diseases are the highest cause for death in non-communicable diseases. The country population growth rate is at 1.2 percent according to the 2012 statistics. TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s population is estimated at almost 81 million. Turkey has had tremendous progress technologically, economically, politically and medically. The biggest positive change to happen in Turkey is its dedication to reducing tobacco use amongst its citizens. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to help in the fight against tobacco use is a beneficial asset to the Turkish people. This is aimed at enhancing the life quality of its nationals. There are still numerous challenges that are still in existent in the country this include the high rate of infant mortality rate, the high unemployment rate and inadequate water supply. Cardiovascular diseases remain the main challenge resulting in deaths alongside deaths from diabetes in non-commun icable diseases. There are currently programs in Turkey that target respiratory diseases, inactivity, obesity and anti-tobacco use. Despite the adequate funding allocated towards health promotion and education, there are no current policies, programs or action plans in operation to increase awareness of cardiovascular diseases. Behavior Tobacco use is an urgent issue that has to be addressed in Turkey. In relation to the question, it is essential to note that Tobacco use in Turkey is so vast that it affects the majority of the population in the country. To curb this alarming trend, it is critical that certain programs and policies have to introduce to increase awareness of the increased use of tobacco. This increased tobacco use has led to high death rates as a result of cardiovascular diseases. To change this behavior of tobacco use, there has to increased awareness of measures to prevent to halt the spreading of this trend. To enable this, screening measures have to be accessible to all the populations to halt tertiary complications resulting from continuous use of tobacco (Phillips & MacCracken, 2012). Targeting non communicable diseases will enhance the life quality of the individuals. Specific Population Affected The majority male adults are the segment of the Turkish population that is likely to benefit from these anti-tobacco policies that will be introduced. This is because mostly the adult males at their prime ages engage in this vice of tobacco use. In Turkey according to national statistics, 30 percent of the population is engaged in tobacco use. This, however, is a minimum statistic as the rates of smoking a said to increasing by the day. Among the highest users of tobacco, 48 percent is men. Tobacco use amongst the men in tobacco has been equated to the fight against terrorism. Because of the extensive use of tobacco, the stereotype of Turkish being smokers gets adopted throughout the globe. Methods to improve this situation To improve this condit ion and in general and to improve the health of Turkish nationals, the following measures have to undertake to curb this vice. Policies shave to be introduced and implemented to curb the continuous abuse of tobacco in Turkey. Amongst the policies, to be passed include the introduction of smoke free environment where there should be no smoking in public places and indoor places (Skolnik,2008). This prevents the exposure to
Advertisements - Essay Example Looking at the Bacardi advertisement image and discussing about it in terms of the needs it appeals to, we notice from the very beginning that one of them is the need for sex. (Fowles, 17) The man (the only man in the picture) is pouring rum into a glass, accompanied by three beautiful girls. And not only are they beautiful, but they also express, in an innocent manner, desire. The effect of the advertisement is amplified by the fact that one of the girls seems to look directly towards the audience, establishing thus a connection with the one the product is primarily addressed to. And more than that, the setting is an intimate one, a cheerful, luminous and comfortable room. The image of the man accompanied by three women makes also appeal to manÃ¢â¬â¢s need for attention (Fowles, 57). We all need to get othersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention, if we cannot be the centre, we need, at least, to feel some people are interested in us. The advertisement shows more than a feeble interest, the man reall y got the interest of three persons, and they also belong to the opposite sex. If we look more attentively, we see that the women are looking at the way the man is pouring the beverage, so the reason they are fascinated is clear. Connected to some extent to the need for attention, is the need to dominate (Fowles, 51), to feel powerful and in control. Fernando, the man in the picture, seems in control of the situation, he dominates the environment and being in possession of a strong drink he is powerful too. As for the physiological needs (Fowles, 78), the image of nine glasses all full, aligned on the table and the tenth, in manÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, with the liquid pouring in it, is appealing enough to get the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and interest. And the use of the superlative of the adjective Ã¢â¬Å"rareÃ¢â¬ in reference to the Bacardi rum amplifies even more the effect of the image. The advertisement uses a hornblowing type of headline (Bovee, 7) Ã¢â¬â Bacardi
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Economic Growth Essay In any nation, the government policies, institutions, and laws collaborate to create a growth infrastructure which coordinates, enables, and encourages the economic behavior that results in the accumulation of human capital, physical capital, natural resources, and technology. These resources have a role in generating sustained long-run economic growth. Physical capital refers to the tools that are used to leverage the productive ability of an average worker. Physical capital includes transportation equipments, computers, machinery, and factories which facilitate the production of goods and services. They expand the capacity of an economy to produce goods in the future, thereby promoting economic growth. (Jones, 2002) Human capital refers to the numerous abilities that enable an average worker to apply and understand new, productive knowledge. An increase in the stock of human capital is achieved through education and on the job training. This equips workers with the appropriate skills to increase production, and, therefore, increasing economic growth. Natural resources provide the raw materials that are used in the production of goods and services. A nation that is endowed with adequate natural resources and has tools to extract them, can acquire the necessary raw materials for production and improve its economic growth in the long-run. Technological knowledge is used to bring scarce resources together to produce the required services and goods. Technology facilitates the production of better and more output from a given quantity of scarce economic resources, and this is what sustains the economic well-being, and drives economic growth of a nation. (Jones, 2002) The government through its policies and institutions can discourage or contribute to long-run growth. The government can encourage growth by developing power, transport, and other utilities. Growth can also be encouraged by using policies that will result in stable and low inflation. Heavy taxation by the government will discourage economic growth as it will reduce investments in the economy. Reference Jones, I. C. (2002). Introduction to economic growth. New York, NY: W. W. Norton Company.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
OutpatientsÃ¢â¬â¢ Perspective of Clinical Communication Skills Research Paper Title: OutpatientsÃ¢â¬â¢ Perspective of Clinical Communication Skills of Doctors in Private Practice in Goa Abstract Clinical communication entails a dialogue between doctor and patient, and has been clearly demonstrated to affect many aspects of patient care, including health outcomes. Ideally, doctors are expected to play a dual role Ã¢â¬â as a source of patient healing as well as a source of reassurance and encouragement (Baker et al, 2011). This study was aimed at assessing the basic clinical communication behaviours of doctors in outpatient private practice in Goa, based on the reports of their patients. Good clinical communication skills include facilitation of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s expression of feelings and expectations related to his/her health care, conveyance of clear information to the patient, and provision of empathy and encouragement. The participants of the study were chosen using purposive sampling. Internationally standardized questionnaires HPQ (Four Habits Patient Questionnaire), consisting of 15 Likert-scale items, and CAHPS (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and S ystems) was employed to understand the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of Ã¢â¬ËtheirÃ¢â¬â¢ doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s communication. Results were analyzed using total scores obtained. Individual behaviours were also analyzed using frequencies and percentages indicating doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ competence in one or more habits over others. Introduction The health outcome of a patient is greatly affected by the manner in which doctors communicate with their patients (Baker et al, 2011). The key to diagnosis and treatment is exchanging information, and communication plays a vital role in building a trusting relationship between doctor and patient that encourages better information-giving and information-getting, both of which are particularly important to enable positive healthcare. Furthermore, communication and trust may influence patient satisfaction, compliance, and coping (Desjarlais-deKlerk and Wallace, 2013). Recognizing the onus on the doctor to ensure satisfied and healthy patients by way of the formerÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to communicate with the latter, this study attempted to determine the communication abilities of doctors in Goa as reported by their outpatients. Objectives To determine the medical communication skills of outpatient doctors To ascertain the relationship between doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ gender and communication abilities To establish a connection between the proficiency in communication of doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ support staff and ratings of doctors Method Sample and Sampling Method The study included 90 respondents (67 females and 23 males) chosen by purposive sampling from across the state of Goa. The respondents ranged in age from 20 to 70 years, with an almost equal number being below (n=47) and above (n=43) 40 years. Sixty percent of the respondents possessed a graduate or higher degree and nearly half (49%) the respondents answered the questionnaire based on their personal experiences with a General Practitioner. The perceived age of the doctors, as reported by the respondents, ranged from 26 to 70 years, with 63.3% being reported to be in the age range of 40 to 60 years. Measurement Internationally standardized questionnaires (4 HPQ Ã¢â¬â Four Habits Patient Questionnaire) (Bard, 2011), consisting of 15 Likert-scale items, and CAHPS (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems, 2012) were employed to understand the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of Ã¢â¬ËtheirÃ¢â¬â¢ doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s communication. Results and Discussion Communication abilities of doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ support staff Effective communication between doctor and patient is a central clinical function that cannot be delegated (Simpson et al, 1991). The competency of support staff such as nurses and receptionists often influences the quality of health care (Marcinowiczi, 2010) as they are the first point of contact between doctor and patient. Their behaviour can, therefore, influence a patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ rating of his doctor. Using CAHPS, it was observed that only 40% of the respondents were Ã¢â¬Å"definitely happyÃ¢â¬ with the help received by their doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ receptionist (see Fig.1), although more than half (51%) were Ã¢â¬Å"definitely happyÃ¢â¬ with the courtesy and respect accorded to them (see Fig.1). Figure 1. ReceptionistsÃ¢â¬â¢ Behaviour with Patients Analyzing a total score of receptionistsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour, only 45.5% of the respondents reported Ã¢â¬Å"definite happinessÃ¢â¬ with the formerÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct, thus suggesting that support staff ought to improve their communication skills so as to meet patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations of the healthcare system. Getting care quickly The availability of immediate healthcare is an important determinant of quality in the primary care setting. Availability refers to the ease with which a person may receive care (Marcinowiczi, 2010), and can include factors such as speed of providing an appointment, time spent by the patient in the waiting room (>15 minutes past appointment time), and doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness to provide telephonic answers. An analysis of these factors, using CAHPS, revealed that a majority of respondents were quite happy with the rapidity of obtaining an appointment (44%) and obtaining answers to their telephonic queries (46%) (see Fig. 2). However, a moderate percentage (33%) reported having to wait for more than 15 minutes past their appointment time (see Fig. 2). A long waiting time, which can be interpreted as a mode of non-verbal communication, can be quite irksome, and underlines the need for doctors to improve their time management skills. Figure 2. Clinic Experiences of Patients RespondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ rating of their doctor A health system can deliver truly patient-centered care only when patient ratings are elicited, integrated, and honoured. A 10-point scale (from CAHPS) used to measure the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ rating of their doctor revealed that a majority (52.2%) rated their doctor as Ã¢â¬Å"AverageÃ¢â¬ (see Fig. 3). This indicates outpatientsÃ¢â¬â¢ perception that there exists scope for improvement in their doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to provide quality healthcare. Figure 3. RespondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ rating of their doctor Correlation between various parameters and rating of doctor Assuming that the longer the period of doctor-patient acquaintance, the better the rating obtained by the doctor, a correlation between the two was done but yielded no significant result (r = 0.15, p Analysis revealed that a majority of the respondents (78.9%) visited a male doctor, and literature suggests that females score over males in communication skills. A correlation was thus attempted between the gender of the doctors and the respondents rating of them. However, no significant correlation was obtained between the two variables in this study (r = 0.11, p Research suggests that education of respondents also affects ratings, with more educated individuals giving lower ratings to doctors (Instructions for Analyzing Data from CAHPSÃ ® Surveys; 2012). However, the converse was noted in this study as a significant positive correlation was obtained (r = 0.244, p=0.05), indicating that the higher the educational qualifications of the respondents, the more accepting they were of their doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s communication abilities. It is a known paradox in medical literature that Ã¢â¬Ëpatients can be satisfied with care that is not high quality and can be dissatisfied with high-quality careÃ¢â¬â¢ (Makoul, 2001). Willingness to recommend doctor Seventy six percent of the respondents expressed their willingness to refer their doctor to others (see Fig. 4). This suggests that despite scoring their doctors Ã¢â¬Å"averageÃ¢â¬ in parameters such as clinic experiences and rating, the respondents had satisfactory overall experiences with their doctor. Figure 4. RespondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ willingness to recommend their doctor to others Analysis of 4 HPQ In 1996, Frankel and Stein structured the principles of good, clinical communication into a teaching model for didactic purposes: Ã¢â¬Å"The Four Habits model Ã¢â¬â an approach to effective clinical communicationÃ¢â¬ . The habits are: invest in the beginning of the encounter to create rapport and set an agenda (Habit I), elicit the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective (Habit II), demonstrate empathy to provide opportunity for patients to express emotional concerns (Habit III), and invest in the end to provide information and closure (Habit IV) (Bard, 2011). The 4 HPQ, consisting of 15 questions divided into sets of 4, was formulated based on these well-researched habits. Analysis revealed that the respondents rated their doctors well in Habits I, II, and III (see Table 1). However, the doctors were scored low on Habit IV, thus suggesting that they require to further hone their skills in summarizing the consultation by checking the patients understanding and negotiating a treatment or follow-up plan (see Table 1). Table 1. Scores obtained on each HABIT Minimum Maximum Mean + SD HABIT I 8 16 14.34 + 1.76 HABIT II 3 8 6.52 + 1.27 HABIT III 3 12 9.82 + 2.18 HABIT IV 12 24 19.99 + 3.52 Conclusion Good medical communication includes building a relationship, exploring the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, displaying empathy, checking for understanding, reaching agreements on problems and plans, and providing closure (Makoul, 1991). Increasing public dissatisfaction with the medical profession is, in good part, related to deficiencies in clinical communication (Simpson, 1991). This study found that outpatients rated their doctors satisfactorily despite indicating certain communication habits that required improvement. Respondents also indicated that communication skills of receptionists in doctorsÃ¢â¬â¢ clinics could be improved so as to provide a better healthcare environment. Shifting focus from patient satisfaction to patient experiences will enable doctors to be better communicators, thereby helping to bring about a radical shift in total healthcare experiences. References Bard J. Hospital Doctors Communication Skills: A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of a short course and the usefulness of a patient questionnaire. British Medical Journal. 2011. Desjarlais-deKlerk K and Wallace J. Instrumental and socio-emotional communications in doctor-patient interactions in urban and rural clinics. BMC Health Services Research 2013, 13:261 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/13/261 Instructions for Analyzing Data from CAHPSÃ ® Surveys: Using the CAHPS Analysis Program Version 4.1 Document No. 2015 Updated 4/2/12 Makoul M. 2001 Marcinowicz L, Rybaczuk M, et al. International Journal for Quality in Health Care web site (Internet). Poland: 2010; Volume 22, Number 4: pp. 294Ã¢â¬â301 (cited 2014 January 15) Simpson M, Buckman R, et al. Doctor-patient communication: the Toronto consensus statement. British Medical Journal. 1991; 303:1385-7. 1
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Scope Of The E Business The electronic business, and talks about like; electronic Business; or; e-business; can be defined as information and communication technologies (ICT) to support all the economic activities. The commerce is the interchange of products and services between the companies and you can see the groups and the individuals, like one of the basic activities in any business. Electronic business and centers in the use of the ICT to allow the external activities, and labor relations with the individuals, the groups and other companies. The internet: It creates or no, and the creation of the later part of the way of the Internet in 1969, during the cold war of the military of the United States. It was supposed to be communications network of the nuclear-test; Today, the Internet is separating by everybody, and consists of networks and the countless computers, allowing that million people interchange the information. It is the transference of the data transmitted on long distances in the Internet in the big lines known collectively as the spine the Internet. And now the Internet of suppliers of important services of the Internet such as WorldCom and MCI, Sprint is maintained and, GTE, American National Standard, and UUNET. Because these suppliers do enormous amounts of yield of the Internet, and are motivated to maintain constant and fast the communication, that will benefit to the users from the daily Internet like you and me. World Wide Web: A system for Internet that supports the coordination of special documents. Formatted documents in an increase in the price language have been called HTML (Hypertext Mark up Language) the language of the increase in the price of the hypertext that connections to other documents, as well as supports graph, audio and video files. This means we jump of one document to another simply by on hot spotting to click. Not all web servers A part of the World Wide forms web. There its different applications to have called browsers of the web which it easy turning access into the World Wide Web; two of most popular Firefox and Microsoft Internet Explorer are. World Wide Web is not synonymous with Internet Extranet: Uses networks and Internet-protocols are the extranet private link network. Be possible on company are found intranet as part of external network that is extended to users outside the company, and usually by means of Internet. Such as other companies (between companies and matter, B2B) described at treating a selected group, in heat insulation of already other Internet the users examined Internet as a means. On the one hand, the communication with users is known by the consumer and has been known the company sector and (B2C) the models of the consumer involving servers and one or more of the companies. E-business and e-commerce: in 1997 IBM (www.ibm.com/e-business) to use the term to promote its services was one of the first suppliers: E-business (ebizNis) -through the use of Internet technologies the transformation of key business processes . E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet. Some Differences between B2B and B2C E-Commerce: o B2C for each of the goods sold flat rate retail price it offer spot sourcing contract management. o B2B transaction to establish the price based it involves negotiation terms on which other factors for example carrier, warranty coverage, logistics preferences and volume-based pricing etc. will be decided. o B2C the business to spend on expensive, extensive infrastructure it does not require. o B2B requires in integrating the systems of the organization huge amounts to be involved in spent the process as well as those of its business partners that made time consuming, raising many questions about security and expensive etc. o B2C e-commerce used defined profiles and email promotions just involves. o B2B e-commerce studying order history data it needs the involvement of complex issues, for example locations, the preferences of trading partners, payment records etc. Between B2B and business-to-consumer e-commerce these are just some of the main differences. There are companies that offer services as well as products to help run business successfully. 1.2. Benefits: When we access internet we find so many sites on it. When we open it we also get some useful information about the topic. Through website we can do shopping, marketing, sales, advertise, business, etc. the list is endless. For giving and getting information on a large scale just make a website and a reliable hosting company for our self. Sometimes it is expensive but sometimes it is not so, this is because if we get a good host that offers us good services and keep our website updated according to its and market need, is not a venture of loss. Knowledge of Products: We can now increase our business not only determining the local market but the international market too for improving the growth of your business with no difficulty. By following this website business we can definitely change the way and nature of your business. We can also stretch or make more elastic diversity of your products to millions of our unknown site users. We can allow our products to be in view for all the time on net. Through website we can extend our business hours for selling and purchasing of goods. Freedom of having Website: We can put any information on our site at any time of the day in order to be viewed by the internet surfers and your website users. We can change or add the information according to our numbers of time in a day. Through internet we can browse any business site and can expand our business to those you do not know. Through increased internet users our business can develop and attain growth on net. On net you face even more challenging market and companies with hundred million of customers at this new market place without making us worried. Low cost Advantage: Being on net we have to be more aware for the growth of your business by applying new challenging tactics that can be useful for us to remain in competition. We can increase our business by advertising our products and services without spending a large amount and time loss activities on printing and distribution. We get a higher value added cost for our product as the market is international and expanded one as compared to the local city market with only handful of customers. We can also add the facility of ecommerce for our site users and customers. Through this facility our old customer and our prospective customer can place order and purchase our products with the services we offer them online. We can reduce the expenses like telephone calls, distribution costs, printing etc and also by increasing some hi-tech facilities like emails, promotion of your product through website, with extended business hours without our presence and we can send out your less promotional product with a small cost plan. Nature of e-business: In e-business again on the subject of trust, Daughtrey (2001) refers to the conditions of consumers expect purchasing from the Internet or when conducting business with: Generalised perception of supplier or reputation. Confidentiality and privacy, security for Customer expectations. Supplier provided by Assurances for example guarantees. Other customers reports. For example a history of prior transactions If the customer has, additional factors may be: Order fulfilment accuracy. Order fulfilment Timeliness. With customer relations Nature of any interactions. Any disputes Resolution. From the supplier Subsequent communications. With whom customer information was shared any communications from other suppliers. 1.3. Nature of e-business communication: MassMass communicationcommunicationcommunication refers to the process of transferring or transmitting a message to a large group of people. Typically, this requires the use of some form of the media, including newspapers, television and the internet. Personal communication begins when two people are aware of each other. You dont need to know each others name, even dont need to talk. When two persons eyes meet, and two people realize there is a person right there. The communication has just begun. internet communication Purely internal or intranet mail systems, where the information never leaves the corporate or organizations network, are much more secure, although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, and occasionally accessing, the e-mail of other employees not addressed to them. 2. How the internet works: 2.1. How messages are transferred across the Internet: Internet technology The transfer encoding scheme that is used to transfer messages comprising strings of 8-bit bytes. With the aid of a time sequence diagram, use the list of FTP command and reply messages to show a typical exchange of messages to carry out the transfer of a named file from the file system on a server to the file system on a client. 2.2. Introduction to HTML: HTML is a language for describing web pages. HTML stands for Hyper Text Mark-up Language. HTML is not a programming language; it is a mark-up language. A mark-up language is a set of mark-up tags. HTML uses mark-up tags to describe web pages. Clients, servers and browsers: Client-server model of the customer of fact processing is the structure of the application of the distribution of tasks which the sections or the workload between service providers, frequently communicate serve called servers, and the student, and called customers and the customers and the servers concerning a computer network on separate hardware, but both the customer has a server who in the system himself it is established. The machine of the server is the host who puts one or more of the server software in functioning these resources with customers shares. The customer must share none of their resources, but the functionality of the service requests the server for the contents or. And beginning then with meetings with customers connects servers who (listening) the received registrations wait. Supplies, and expresses it to win web browser and the application of information resources on the World Wide. 2.3. Intranets and extranets: The intranet is an information portal that specific for small and internal communication means or large ventures, companies and governments, the industries, financial institutions is devised of any size or complexity Extranets, slightly same as the intranet. External networks are devised the state specifically, and limited entrance to some files of the computer systems to give which we have had: Some large customers or privileges, Specific the industry partners, Suppliers and subcontractorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Etc. E-business models The five business models: the different ways in which the internet may be used to generate revenue by supporting the sale of a product, or service for example CDs, flights; supplying electronic information, or media services for example reports or music; charging per transaction for the provision of a service for example airline booking; charging a subscription for an information service for example news; advertising revenue, from an attractive website the internet can be used for selling a product, or service: 1. To a good place start is in the auction site on Internet. There are a lot of sales by auction which on Internet are specialised and unspecialised auctions that examine on Internet can be found. 2. A lot of service providers of Internet and web folders of research engines the property of Classifieds which can be used to solicit to other agencies on Internet to sell. 3. Found on the bulletin Council and the newsgroups which specialise themselves in this point (s) that you tries it reported sell and from to spread out to include your advertisement. 4. If we maintain an Internet site of the private sector or the homepage, and our point (s) at our place advertises. 5. Taking photos everything wants sell you, raises it very the chances of selling them. Differentiate between other business models for generating revenue from the internet: Distinction between the other company models to produce turnover of Internet. There five business models: 1. To enter 2. Supplying electronic information 3. Charge for each operation 4. The levy of prices 5. Declaration of income We can continue to the shares by means of Internet or for matter Internet Or If we or you have any cooperation. Then we can be advertised Or We can treat complete control of our work and have during the fact search All thanks to the turnovers of Internet.. Revenue from Internet! Identify other uses of the internet which may not generate revenue Several disadvantages can be obtained due to inadequate planning of the e-business strategy. For instance, it could lead to productivity losses, including loss of both existing and new staff and economic loss. The absence of an e-business plan may also lead to false starts and personal losses, which can occur as stakeholders become frustrated and disappointed over the general mission (2002). On the bright side, these losses are avoidable. In support of the creation of an e-business plan. Website design 4.1. Elements of a web page that may be used by search engines How Search Engines Work Crawler-based search engine of the strap linked on the basis of the evidence that human-drove both they to describe the term of the Search Engine; it is of frequent use generally. In radically diverse collection of the ways of listings in both types of motors of the search. Crawler-Based Search Engines Crawler-based search on the basis of the strap linked by an example for example of Google create their own lists automatically. They spider or crawl in the Internet, then the search finds people. The Strap-based motors of the search look for these changes in the end of the day if we had to change to Web pages, and how it is mentioned that can affect to us. The body copy, the titles of the page and other elements all play a role. Human-Powered Directories Evidence of human-powered for an example of the Open Directory, of the lists, depends on humans. We offer to the directory and a brief description of the entire site, or editors to review sites that you write one. The sponsor of the descriptions of research looks for games only. Hybrid Search Engines It used to be in the days on the Internet early on that the search engine lists presented either human-powered or on the basis of the results Crawler. This will be quite common today for both types of results. Typically, one kind of lists on another search engine hybrid will fit. For example, the look of a smart MSN Search is more likely to submit lists of human energy. However, it also displays the results on the basis of creeping, and also for more obscure queries. 4.2. What makes a website easy for the visitor to use: Always let the visitor know where they are located in the website. When building a website dont make the user learn the navigation or absorb significant new ways of doing things in order to access the content. Navigation choices should be available. Visual feedback such as subtle rollovers is often a good idea to improve the website to make it easier to the consumer. 4.3. Consideration should be taken to make a web page attractive to the visitor: consideration should be taken to make a web page attractive to the visitor through Easy navigation, Originality Creativity, Harmony of colours images. (1) Content, Grammatical Spelling Errors. (2)HTML: Reasonable loading time, Screen resolution compatibility, (3) Big No Nos: No distracting backgrounds, No saturation of advertisements, No poor quality animations, NO HYPE! No Background Music, Dont Over-do the Extras. Capital One does not provide financial education system and the abundance of information. The only qualm we have with their system is the lack of interactive features and financial instruments. We would like to see something more than just publishing articles cardholder can be made through the face. Education systems of financial tools are very useful because it allows the cardholder additional information about credit and money management. We can access your monthly statement, schedule payments online, and check our balance from any internet access around the globe. If we have trouble remembering to pay your bill on time, go to the website and set up an automatic withdrawal from our checking account so that we never miss another payment and never have to worry about late fees accumulating on our card and accruing interest. We did not hassle offered 24 / 7 account access and account alerts for free on the Internet. Each of these features makes banking easier and less expensive. It would be access 24 / 7 account holder allows manage their accounts online from any computer with an Internet connection. Alerts free account is a great tool, which amount to the cardholder if they are approaching the credit limit or if the bill is paid off. By using this feature, you can avoid a lot of fees is not necessary. This is why in my view; capital one site is better than this site MBNA. Conclusion: the widespread adoption of the internet and the web means that all business can now operate globally, expand the customer base, compete effectively, process orders, payments and deliveries. References: Apte, Chindanand, Bing Liu, Edwin P.D. Pednault and Padhraic Smyth (2002) Business Application of Data Mining, Communication of the ACM, 45 August Brahm Canzer, 2006, E-business: strategic thinking and practice, p-176, published by Charles Hartford. Ravi Kalakota, Marcia Robinson, 2001, E-business 2.0: roadmap for success, pp-44, 47,2nd Ed, published by Pearson education corporate. Retrieved on 10th may 2010 http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2009/08/internet-and-e-business.html Retrieved on 15th may 2010 www.guardian.co.uk/online website of The Guardian newspaper
Monday, August 19, 2019
A dream is a wish that someone hopes to fulfill in their lifetime, or in the near future. The American dream is interpreted in multiple ways, and even though this is true, the structure of the American Dream is the same. When talking about the American Dream, most people think of families thriving together and succeeding in what they want to do. The American dream is based on freedom, justice, success, and in socioeconomic terms. In A Raisin in the Sun, the Younger family have different dreams and all of them felt that their dream is more important than their familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ dreams. Most of the members of the Younger family face difficulties in achieving their dream, but only a few will accomplish this. The value and purpose of the Younger familyÃ¢â¬â¢s individual dreams and values are crucial to them because of the effect it has on them, but their ultimate American dream is happiness for the family. Big Walter had lots of values for his race and worked very hard for those values to ensure happiness for his family. The American dream was a dim reality because of the harsh working conditions of Chicago blacks in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s (MÃ¢â¬â¢baye 175). This is how mama sees Big Walter, as a courageous man who fought all his life to secure a happy future for his family. As MÃ¢â¬â¢baye states, Ã¢â¬Å"Big WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s life was a constant struggle against a personal sorrow and a hostile economic and social world that discriminated against himÃ¢â¬ (175). Big Walter has the most dignity for his family and his actual dream is the happiness of his family. Mama always mentions Big Walter in the story every time Walter or Beneatha does something that she thinks is wrong. Mama says that Big Walter hated domestic jobs and that farming and... ... sick peopleÃ¢â¬âthen go be a nurse like other womenÃ¢â¬âor just get married and be quietÃ¢â¬ (Hansberry 38). The value of every dream is crucial to every member of the Younger family because of the effect it has them, but it is the family dream to own a house that hold them together. At the end of the story, Mama convinced Walter that buying the house was important for the family because the thought of living in the apartment for the rest of their lives was unbearable. Big Walter had to fight and was struggling to achieve his dream of buying a house, which ended up becoming the families dream. WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s dream interfered with BeneathaÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, and the families dream. This had a major impact on everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, especially after Walter lost the money. In the end, the Younger family was all happy about WalterÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. That is the Younger family American dream.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
William Jewell History and Student Programs William Jewell was founded by affiliates of the Missouri Baptist convention in 1849. The college shares the name of Dr. William Jewell, because he donated $10,000 to the creation of the school. The school was originally associated with the Missouri Baptist convention, but in 2003 it became an independent college. One of the more famous campus chapels is the John Gano chapel; it was funded by John GanoÃ¢â¬â¢s great-granddaughter, Elizabeth Price, in 1926. However, the first building made was Jewell hall, which remains the focal point of the campus. JewellÃ¢â¬â¢s first gymnasium separate from the school was made in 1896. World War One, as well as the burning of another womenÃ¢â¬â¢s college in the area lead to women coming to Jewell, and they received the same admittance as men at the time. During World War Two, Jewell had a naval flight training school. This brought them more students during this time and in the years following. Jewell has had four presidents speak and many of th e worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading performers has have recitals on the Jewell campus. Jewell has more than seventy student programs. Including things like, Fellowship for Christian athletes, honors societies, orchestras and choirs, and many sorority and fraternity options. Jewell has dormitories on campus, and it is required that students live on campus for their first four years, with few exceptions. Background Information William Jewell is a liberal arts college in Liberty, Missouri with majors and minors from business to theatre. Jewell admission starts at $40,030 for room and board, tuition, and other fees. However, due to the fact that is a private school, it is generous with scholarships. William Jewell currently has a campus of 1,100 ful... ... musically and many other ways. William Jewell has the only Oxbridge program in existence (as stated earlier in the paper). Jewell also has the Harriman-Jewell series, and the teachers have an intimate relationship with the students. The students get to know one another by living on campus and through the numerous student run organizations. Summary William Jewell is strong academically, musically, and socially. It gives students opportunities to interact socially with other students and teachers with the small class size. Jewell is in a location that is conveniently near home but far enough away that I can be isolated. I would be able to satisfy my needs and enjoy myself with the clubs. I would be able to be a part of the track team and I would be able to thrive on the violin. The weather is mild but warm in the spring and early fall. So, I could be a cardinal.
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Guilt is perhaps the most painful companion of death.Ã¢â¬ This quote truly captures DimmesdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s death and journey to death, it is guilt that drives him to the grave and it accompanies him throughout all five grieving stages. Dimmesdale is one of many characters in The Scarlet Letter that is faced with problems both personally and spiritually. The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a romantic novel about a young woman, Hester Prynne, who is permanently marked with her sin by a scarlet A she must bare on her chest and also by her daughter Pearl. Hester committed adultery with the young minister of Boston, Arthur Dimmesdale. Hester, and her beloved child Pearl, learn to over come the A and change the meaning of it from adulterer to able, while they are changing the way society views them, Dimmesdale is withering away under the Ã¢â¬Å"careÃ¢â¬ of Rodger Chillingworth, HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s past husband. Chillingworth knows about the s in and seeks revenge on Dimmesdale. Dimmesdale is helpless and in a downward spiral. He let the sin become who he is, even though the towns people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know of his adultery until his dying breath. The Scarlet Letter is a story about overcoming the darkness that hangs above you and stepping out of the sin or gloom that controls you. For characters like Hester this is a fairly easy thing to handle, but on the flip side characters like Dimmesdale struggle and can not seem to escape their heinous acts and donÃ¢â¬â¢t find peace of mind until they die. The Scarlet Letter mainly focuses on the process of overcoming these troubling times and how each individual character handles the pressure, stress, and guilt that come along with it differently. Arthur Dimmesdale is a lost soul after his sin, he expe... ...d in acts to try and please God or whom ever they wish to gain forgiveness from. Most people naturally tie depression to death; people in this stage will experience sadness, regret, and fear of what is to come. The final stage is acceptance, this stage is very straightforward, it is in this stage that the individual realizes their fate and are okay with it and what they have done. (Elisabeth KÃ ¼bler-Ross -Five Stages of Grief, Business Balls). Dimmesdale is a very, very troubled man to say the least. Throughout The Scarlet Letter Dimmesdale is shown going through the five stages of grief, he lets his sin rule and control his life and lets it ultimately lead to his demise. Ã¢â¬Å"Denial is a conscious or unconscious refusal to accept facts, information, reality, etc., relating to the situation concernedÃ¢â¬ (Elisabeth KÃ ¼bler-Ross -Five Stages of Grief, Business Balls). Denial
Saturday, August 17, 2019
SUMMARY Fertilization Recommendations Based on Soil Chemical Analysis Cacao farm folk (Theobroma cacao L. ) in South Sulawesi, North Luwu, Reski Nur Fatimah AM * K4120787, 2010. 50 pages, Based on Guidance, PU: Ir. Abdul Madjid, MP ** and DPA: Ir. Sugiyarto, MP ***, Department of Agribusiness Management from the State Polytechnic of Jember. One of the biggest areas of cocoa farmers in Indonesia, North Luwu. One of the important problems in the cultivation of cocoa is fertilization.Lack of fertilizer recommendation, especially in the cocoa plantation owned by the people affected by the lack of soil fertility. The purpose of this research is to provide information to cocoa farmers, especially cocoa farmers of the people residing in North Luwu on fertilizer recommendation in accordance with chemical analysis of soil fertilization activities do so more effectively and efficiently. Thus, soil fertility County North luwu increased and so did their cocoa production. Method p|Indonesian to E nglish (Alternative 2)| Recommendation SUMMARY of fertilisers, soil chemical analysis Gardens Cocoa (Theobroma cacao l. ) People in North Luwu, South Sulawesi Reski Noor Fatima m. * K4120787, 2010. 50 pages, under the direction, MPW: IR. Abdul Majid, MP ** and DPA: Il. Sugiyarto, Deputy of ***, Department of agribusiness management from State Polytechnic of Jember. One of the largest areas of cocoa farmers in Indonesia, North Luwu. An important problem in cocoa cultivation of fertilizer.Lack of fertilizer recommendations, especially in the cocoa plantations refers to people who suffered from the lack of soil fertility. The aim of this study is to provide information for farmers in cocoa, cocoa farmers especially people living in North Luwu fertilizer recommendations in accordance with the chemical analysis of soil fertilizer do so more efficiently and effectively. Thus, soil district North luwu grew and so did his cocoa. Method r| Indonesian to English (Alternative 3)| Recommendatio ns of fertilization summary based on chemical soil gardens cocoa analysis (Theobroma cacao l. people in the North of South Sulawesi Luwu, Reski Nur Fatima AM * K4120787, 2. 010,50 page, under the direction, Ministry of public works: Madjid Ir. Abdul, MP * and DPA: go. Sugiyarto, MP * Department of management of agribusiness of the State Polytechnic Jember. One of the largest areas of Indonesia North Luwu cocoa farmers. A major problem in the cultivation of cocoa is fertilization. The lack of recommendation of fertilizers, especially in the cocoa plantations belonging to people affected by the lack of soil fertility.This research aims to provide information to farmers in cocoa, especially farmers in cocoa of residents in North Luwu recommendation fertilizers in accordance with the chemical analysis of soil fertilization activities make it more effective and efficient. Therefore, the North County soil fertility luwu increase as its cocoa production. Method p| Indonesian to English (Al ternative 1)| Training methods including soil sampling people's cocoa plantation in North Luwu and direct interviews with farmers, then do the analysis of N, P, K, BO, CEC, pH, BV in soil samples in the laboratory soil State Polytechnic of Jember.Determine fertilizer recommendation based on soil analysis samples. Results of analysis and recommendations can be concluded that: (1) soil chemical properties in the cocoa plantations of the people is less ideal for the ideal cocoa plantation (2) Availability of soil nutrients in cocoa plantations of the people in North Luwu relatively very low (3) Recommendation fertilization of cocoa in accordance with the results Chemical analysis of soil for production may be optimal.Keywords: Recommendation, fertilization, Soil Chemical Analysis, North Luwu, People's Cocoa Plantation, Soil Fertility, Nutrition. * Students ** Cacao Agribusiness Concentration lecturer at the Polytechnic of Jember *** The teaching staff at the State Polytechnic of Jember | Indonesian to English (Alternative 2)| Implementation methods include sampling soil the cocoa plantations of popular in North Luwu and direct interviews with farmers, then make the analysis of N, P, K, Bo, CEC, pH, BV in soil samples in laboratory soil State Polytechnic of Jember.Define fertilizer recommendations are based on soil sampling analysis results. Analysis and recommendations, it can be concluded that: (1) chemical properties of soil on the cocoa plantations of people less ideal for cocoa plantations are ideal (2) the availability of nutrients in the soil the cocoa estates of people in North Luwu relatively very low (3) Recommendation fertilization cocoa, in accordance with the results of chemical analysis of soil for production may be optimal.Keywords: recommendations, fertilizers, chemical analysis of soils, North Luwu, cocoa plantations, soil, nutrients. * Students * Cocoa agribusiness Concentration of the Faculty of the Polytechnic of Jember *** teachers in State Pol ytechnical University of Jember| Indonesian to English (Alternative 3)| Methods include the exercise of sampling of soil the cocoa plantations in North Luwu and direct interviews with farmers, and then make an analysis of N, P, K, BO, CCA, pH, BV in soil samples in the laboratory of soil Jember State Polytechnic.Determine the recommendation of fertilizers based on the results of analysis of the soil samples. The results of the analysis and recommendations can be concluded that: (1) the chemical properties of soil in people cocoa plantations is less ideal for cocoa plantations are ideal (2) the availability of nutrients in farms of ground cocoa of the people in the North relatively very low Luwu (3) recommendations fertilization cocoa, according to the results of chemical analysis of soil for the production may be optimal.Keywords: recommendation, fertilization, chemical analysis of soil, North Luwu, cocoa plantations, the fertility of the soil, Popular nutrients. * * Cocoa concentra tion agribusiness Jember polytechnic education students * teachers in the Polytechnic School of the State of Jember|
Friday, August 16, 2019
Retained earnings is the profit generated by a company that are not distributed to stockholders (shareholders) as dividends but are either reinvested in the business or kept as a reserve for specific objectives (such as to pay off a debt or purchase a capital asset). A balance sheet figure shown under the heading retained earnings is the sum of all profits retained since the companys inception. Retained earnings are reduced by losses, and are also called accumulated earnings, accumulated profit, accumulated Income, accumulated surplus, earned surplus, ndistributed earnings, or undivided profits.Profit and loss account is one of the financial statements of a company and shows the companys revenues and expenses during a particular period. It Indicates how the revenues (money received from the sale of products and services before expenses are taken out, also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"top lineÃ¢â¬ ) are transformed into the net income (the result after all revenues and expenses have been acc ounted for, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"net profitÃ¢â¬ or the Ã¢â¬Å"bottom lineÃ¢â¬ ). It displays the revenues recognized tor a specific period, nd the cost and expenses charged against these revenues, including write- offs (e. . , depreciation and amortization of various assets) and taxes. The purpose of the income statement is to show managers and investors whether the company made or lost money during the period being reported. When any amount is kept separate by a company out of its profit for future purpose then that is called as General reserves. In other words, the general reserves are the Ã¢â¬Ëretained earnings' of a company which are kept aside out of company's profits to meet future known or unknown obligations.General reserves are the part of Ã¢â¬ËProfit and Loss Appropriation Account'. The general reserve is a free reserve which can be utilized for any purpose after fulfilling certain conditions. The primary differences between the retained earnings , profit and loss account and general reserve is as follows: Point of difference Retained earning Account General reserve Definition This is the profit which is not distributed to the stockholders but probably reinvested In the business. This Is the financial statement of a company which shows the tOf2 for future purposes. UsesThis is used or retained as earnings for specific objectives like to pay off debts etc. The purpose of the income statement is to show managers and investors whether the company made or lost money during the period being reported. General reserve is certain amount of money kept aside for future need or unexpected expenses. Found under A balance sheet figure shown under the heading retained earnings is the sum of all profits retained since the company's inception. Found in the final accounts statement book General reserves are the part of Profit and Loss Appropriation Account.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Abstract This paper is an analysis of culture within Taiwan. It will focus on how different cultural elements and dimensions effect and influence business in Taiwan. This paper will also look into the implications for businesses from the United States seeking to conduct business within Taiwan. Taiwan has a unique blend of traditional Chinese cultural as well as modern Western influences. It is an open and welcoming culture and one that plays an important role in the East Asian economy. Global Business Cultural Analysis: Taiwan Introduction to Taiwan Taiwan is a small island country located off the east coast of China in Asia. Also known as the Republic of China (ROC), it is the place where the ROC settled after losing control of mainland China to the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China (PRC). TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s population is made up of mostly Han Chinese with a few other Chinese ethnic groups and a smaller number of aboriginal tribes. The official language spoken in Taiwan is Mandarin Chinese; however, about 70% of people in Taiwan speak both Mandarin and a dialect known as Taiwanese. Another dialect call Hakka is spoken by about 15% of the population and the aboriginals have several other dialects as well (Deaton & Paxson, 2000). Taiwan has unique political status because of their strained relationship with China. At present, the PRC claims it has control over Taiwan and its territories, even though the PRC has never has exercised any governmental control over those regions. China has threatened to put political pressure on any country wanting to officially recognize Taiwan as a sovereign nation, which has led many countries, including the United States, to only recognize Taiwan in an unofficial capacity. These countries, while still doing business with Taiwan, are forced to only officially recognize China, thereby reducing TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s global influence (Friedberg, 2005). On the economic front, Taiwan has done very well in the past few years, experiencing rapid economic growth. It is commonly referred to as one of the East Asian Tigers, a group which includes Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. The countries in this group were relatively poor until around the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s when they underwent educational reforms. These educational reforms, coupled with their cheap yet dynamic workforce helped industrialize their countries and spark rapid economic growth. Ã¢â¬Å"In the 21st century, all four regions have since graduated into advanced economies and high-income economiesÃ¢â¬ (Vadra, 2010, p. 0). Although the economic growth rate in Taiwan has slowed recently, it remains at a relatively high, yet sustainable rate. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in Taiwan? Taiwan, like almost every country, has many different elements and dimensions of culture woven together to form an intricate and unique society. These components of so ciety affect day to day life in both obvious and also unexpected ways. Taiwan has the same core grouping of cultural elements that one would think of affecting any country: communication, religion, ethics, moral values, social structure, and education. However, the main elements which control the actions of most individuals and society as a whole will differ from other countries. For Taiwan, education and religion along with social structure play the major roles in the shaping of Taiwanese culture. It will be found that the main, guiding cultural elements in Taiwan, such as their religions, the sources from which they get their values and attitudes, and also their feelings of responsibility, are especially different from the main cultural elements guiding most of the western world. 1. 2. Communication Communication plays a major role in any functioning society. The way people communication and interpret the communications of others can drastically shape the actions of a society. Communication within a culture can usually be defined as either low context or high context. In low context cultures, Ã¢â¬Å"cultural behavior and beliefs may need to be spelled out explicitly so that those coming into the cultural environment know how to behaveÃ¢â¬ (Satterlee, 2009). On the other hand, in high context cultures, Ã¢â¬Å"as a result of years of interaction with each other, many aspects of cultural behavior are not made explicit, because most members know what to do and what to thinkÃ¢â¬ (Satterlee, 2009). Communication within Taiwan is high context, with more nonverbal forms of communication used than in low context countries, such as the United States or United Kingdom. Even the official spoken language of Taiwan, Mandarin Chinese, is a high context language (Hall, 2000). High context communication. High context communication implies that Ã¢â¬Å"there is less verbally detailed communication and less written/formal information. Instead, there is a more subliminal understanding of what is communicatedÃ¢â¬ (Kuo-Ying & Majtaba, 2010). Duties and responsibilities are frequently assumed or subtly implied rather than directly assigned or commanded. Elements of communication in high context cultures such as Taiwan include indirect and embellished verbal messages, avoidance of directly challenging another personÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions, and situational changes. Also, an importance is placed on personal face-to-face interaction. Nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication plays a large role in the communication process in high context countries like Taiwan. Elements, such as facial expression, eye movement, the tone of voice, gestures, and body language are all important parts of communication within Taiwanese culture. Religious beliefs Taiwan has a large population of people practicing eastern religions such as Buddhism, Taoism and small bits of Confucianism, as well as a small but growing Christian and Catholic population (Chou, & Chen, 2005). It is also common for individuals to do some mixing of religions to accommodate their personal ideas or desires. Most religions in Taiwan incorporate ancestral worship, which is a large part of the religious practices in Taiwan. Ancestral worship even affects national holidays within Taiwan. Ancestral worship in Taiwan. Ancestral worship is a religious act born from the belief that an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s ancestors have a continued existence after death and that these spirits of deceased family members have the ability to influence things in the physical world. Ancestral worship is practiced by some out of respect and honor for their ancestral heritage. For others, however, it is practiced more out of fear of upsetting spirits that may possibly influence the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s fortune on earth. In Taiwan, several national holidays are focused around ancestral worship practices. Among these holidays is Tomb Sweeping Day, a holiday where families visit the graves of their ancestors to attend to their burial place as well as pay homage. Another holiday which sprang from the traditions of ancestor worship is Ghost Festival, which is a time where people place food outside their homes to feed wandering spirits. Chinese New Year also has its roots in the traditions of ancestor worship and is a time often used by families to pay their respects to their ancestors (Newell, 1976). The role of Buddhism in Taiwan. Buddhism and Taoism are the two foremost religions practiced in Taiwan. Combined, they are practiced by more than 75% of the religious population in Taiwan (USDS, 2008). Although Buddhism teaches the putting aside of earthly ties and possessions, including family, influences from both Taoism and Confucianism and integrated some forms of ancestral worship into practiced Buddhism within Taiwan. The role of Taoism in Taiwan. Taoism and Buddhism together are the two largest religions in Taiwan. The beginning of the Taoist religion came from the early Chinese nature worshipers. Taoist beliefs center on the idea that all things have a natural order and that through obtaining harmony with nature one can obtain eternal life. These beliefs add to the non-confrontational aspects of TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s high context culture. The role of Confucianism in Taiwan Confucianism, though practiced in Taiwan by lesser numbers than Taoism or Buddhism, is to many Ã¢â¬Å"an honored school of thought and ethical codeÃ¢â¬ (USDS, 2008). Very similar to Taoism, Confucianism has more of a focus on performing well within society and also ritualistic ancestor worship. The Role of Christianity in Taiwan. Christian churches have been active in Taiwan for many years, and today, the population includes a small but significant percentage of ChristiansÃ¢â¬ (USDS, 2008). Both Catholic and Mormon churches are set up in Taiwan, but their numbers are much smaller. A majority of the aboriginal population in Taiwan are Christian. Ethical practices Ethical standards are often tied very closely to the culture in which they are practiced. According to Stedham, Yamanura, and Lai in an article examining Japanese and Taiwanese ethics: Ã¢â¬Å"ethics cannot be understood independent of the local cultural fabricÃ¢â¬ (2008). Taiwanese tend to be very utilitarian representing Ã¢â¬Å"a collectivist culture that tends to be more homogeneous and has a greater group orientationÃ¢â¬ (Muk, 2007). Therefore, ethical decisions made by Taiwanese people are likely to focus on the wellbeing of their social group. Values and attitudes Ã¢â¬Å"Values are invisible and a Ã¢â¬Ëcore element of cultureÃ¢â¬â¢. These invisible values become evident in behavior. Decision making and the resulting actions and behavior are manifestations of the predominant values in a cultureÃ¢â¬ (Stedham et al. , 2008). In Taiwan, many of the values center around the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s social groups, most notably, the family. Saving face is another factor which often influences and motivates decision making within the Taiwanese culture. The concept of face is Ã¢â¬Å"related to the preference for harmony and avoidance of conflict. One aspect of face is concerned with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s moral character which can only be earned by fulfilling oneÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation to othersÃ¢â¬ (Stedham et al. , 2008). Face also includes Ã¢â¬Å"oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation or prestige which can be earned through accomplishments or through bureaucratic or political powerÃ¢â¬ (Stedham et al. 2008). Great lengths will be taken to avoid situations which might cause damage or embarrassment for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self or other resulting in a loss of face. Another factor affecting Taiwanese cultural attitudes is the concept of guanxi, which literally translated means relationship. Having a good reputation and relations on both a personal and professional level is very important to Taiwanese people. Attitudes toward gender within Taiwanese society. Gender, though in the process of equalizing, still plays an important role within Taiwanese society. Research indicates that women in TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s job market Ã¢â¬Å"suffer lower earnings than men as job opportunities are not made available to them due to the labor market discrimination, family responsibilities, or lack of job mobilityÃ¢â¬ (Bishop, Gronder, Liu, & Chiou, 2007). However, due to the fact that TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s industry is constantly growing, with more jobs in the labor market being filled with female workers, discrimination against females in both hiring and compensation is effectively diminishing over time (Bishop et al. , 2007). Generational differences. Younger generations tend to follow the religious or ethical guidelines set by their predecessors more out of tradition than true belief. Therefore, there is some movement away from previously accepted religious thoughts and ideas within the younger generations in Taiwan. Recent research indicates that Ã¢â¬Å"young Chinese people seem not to identify themselves with traditional Chinese values and Confucian ethics. Maybe it is the result of conflict between Eastern and Western cultures. However, traditional thoughts still significantly influence most people in Chinese ocietiesÃ¢â¬ (Lin & Ho, 2009). Social structures Social structures are very important in Taiwan because the culture is quite Unitarian in its design. One of the largest and most central social structures in Taiwan is family and filial piety. Religion, because of its widespread acceptance, is also a major social structure in Taiwan. Another important social structure is politics with many people in Taiwan voicing their opinions on political matters, especially those matters dealing with mainland China. Military service also has bearing within society, and is an inevitable part of young menÃ¢â¬â¢s lives in Taiwan due to the fact that military service is compulsory. The importance of filial piety. Especially popular in Confucian households, filial piety is, along with brotherly love, considered the Ã¢â¬ËrootsÃ¢â¬â¢ of humanity. It is believed that the way perfect virtue and human perfection will become evident as an individual shows care and respect for these Ã¢â¬ËrootsÃ¢â¬â¢ of humanity (Ruiping, 2006). This belief translates into strong familial ties within the Taiwanese culture, as well as deep feelings of responsibility to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family. The cultural effects of politics. A Datamonitor country profile of Taiwan stated: Ã¢â¬Å"the issue of reunification with mainland China continues to dominate domestic politics and international relations. With both the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China (the mainland) and the Republic of China (Taiwan) claiming to be the legitimate authority over Taiwanese land, frequent tensions between the two are commonÃ¢â¬ (2010). Within Taiwan, the debate over international policy with China is ongoing, with some in favor of increasing ties with the mainland and others advocating more independence for Taiwan. Another aspect of the strained relationship between Taiwan and China is the fact that China has greater influence in the global arena and has therefore been able to stop TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts in seeking to gain global recognition as a sovereign national by the United Nations. China has also threatened severing diplomatic standings with any country to officially recognize Taiwan as its own nation. Therefore, many countries, including the United States maintain unofficial diplomatic ties with Taiwan, keeping their official diplomatic status with China intact. Mandatory military service. It is written into Taiwanese law that males between the ages of 18 and 22 are eligible for selective compulsory military service. Service duration is 12 months. Males students seeking higher education can obtain deferments, were they have several years to complete their education before serving their time in the military. Also, any citizen between the ages of 19 and 36 are considered eligible for drafting into the Taiwan military (USDS, 2008). Education Education is a very important part of Taiwanese society. Because of the high population density in Taiwan, there are high levels of competition for spots in top universities as well as positions in the job market. Academic excellence is so emphasized by parents that it often creates stress for students, who feel pressured to be the best. Emphases on education. Even though TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s laws mandate education through the ninth grade, approximately 95% of students go on to some form of higher education. Many parents see education as the best way to advance their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s future. Taiwan also has a large number of cram schools for subjects ranging from math and English to sports. Students will often spend several hours after the normal school day or on weekends getting extra tutoring and study at cram schools. High stress levels in education faced by students. According to statistical analysis by Cheng Kai-Wen, some of the biggest contributors to stress for Taiwanese college students include fear of inferiority, excessively high expectations from parents, anxiety about the future, and lack of sleep (2009). Many parents believe that a better life can be achieved through academic excellence and therefore push their children to perform well in school. This mind set from parents can lead to children who feel guilt or shame when they are not performing up to expectations. Though Taiwan has not seen the high rates of student suicide that its Asian neighbor South Korea has experienced, it is not unheard of for students to take their own life after poor test performances. Higher education. Higher education is popular in Taiwan and, due to an increasing number of universities, greater numbers of students are able to attend under-graduate and graduate schools. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by locals conducting business in Taiwan? Successful businesses will understand the culture they are operating within and seek to incorporate elements of that culture into their policies and practices in order to be more appealing to their target markets. Therefore, many elements of culture will automatically be integrated into localsÃ¢â¬â¢ businesses. In Taiwan, cultural elements such as religion, education, and attitudes are sown into the fabric of local businesses. This section will examine how elements such as religion, education, and ethics are taken from the surrounding culture and integrated into local businesses within Taiwan. 1. 2. 3. Religion in local business Research done on the affects of religion in business negotiation styles indicated that the principles of Buddhism as well as Confucianism can have an effect on the business making decision made by Taiwanese (Farazmand, Tu, & Daneefard, 2011). Business decision made will take into account the good of the group over the good of the individual. Also, because of the high religious population, there is a large market for items used in religious practices such as incense burners, paper money, good luck charms, prayer beads, and religious ornaments. Education and its effects on business With increasing levels of education in Taiwan has come increased competition for better and higher paying jobs. This increased competition has led to a rapid growth in the number of people obtaining higher education degrees, such as masters or doctorate degrees (Wang, 2003). TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is very open to small business owners, which gives those with the education and desire to start their own business a welcoming and available environment. Business ethics and attitudes In Taiwan it is believed that Ã¢â¬Å"ethical standards and moral conduct must come from within business peopleÃ¢â¬ (Cavico, Majtaba,Venezia, & Venezia, (2011). Many ethical standards and cultural attitudes in Taiwan are rooted in their religious beliefs, especially the teachings of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Taiwanese businesses incorporate these standards of hard work, and family responsibility. Often, the unwritten cultural norms are relied upon to govern the decisions of employees. Also, the concept of corporate social responsibility is gain more popularity in Taiwan, with more people calling for corporations to operate in a more honest and open manner (Ip, 2007). Generational differences. As the new generations shift away from the traditional religious practices and beliefs held by previous generations there is also a shift in moral and ethical standards. Thought possibly to be a result of the increasing embracement of Western culture, this shift in viewpoint within Taiwan could actually be beneficial for American businesses within Taiwan due to the fact that the younger generations are moving more towards Western values and ideas. After researching moral cognizance in both the United States and Taiwan, Cavico et al. ecommended a stronger push not only for business ethics education, but for the incorporation of teaching ethics into every aspect of education (2011). How do these factors compare with culture and business within the United States? The differences between high context and low context cultures include communication differences, relational differences, as well as religious and educational differences. Research has shown that there is a Ã¢â¬Å"significant di fference between Taiwan and America in individualism/collectivism attitudeÃ¢â¬ (Jung-Tsung, 2010). Communicational differences Communication differences between the United States and Taiwan involve so much more than a simple difference of spoken languages. There is a completely different style of communicating with different backgrounds of understanding as well as different personal beliefs and goals. Businesses in the United States operate within a low context culture whereas businesses in Taiwan operate within a high context culture. To cross this barrier will require American businesses to have an understanding of high context communication and managers that are capable of working within a high context environment. Comparing high context and low context cultures. Ã¢â¬Å"High context communication tends to be more indirect, ambiguous, and understated than low context communication, which is direct and precise, and expresses feelings and intentions rather openÃ¢â¬ (Usunier, & Roulin, 2010). Therefore, business communication may contain more implied concepts in Taiwan than business communication in the United States. Religion in the workplace The United States approach to dealing with religion in the workplace has been one of suppressing outward signs and discussion of religion so as to avoid any potential conflict which may arise. Taiwan tends to be more accepting of displays of religion, probably due to their focus on group harmony. Many prominent businessmen in Taiwan are very open about their religious affiliations, making charitable donations in the name of their religion (Hoh, 2002). Religious discussion is allowed and sometime encouraged, but when issues become uncomfortable or divisive it is ignored or avoided. Education emphasis in the US compared to in Taiwan In Taiwan, there is an emphasis put on education by parents and also businesses looking to hire new employees. In fact, education is emphasized so heavily that Ã¢â¬Å"attendance atÃ cramÃ schoolsÃ is an experience that the majority of Taiwanese have while growing upÃ¢â¬ (Liu, 2012). This causes individuals to seek higher education such as graduate degrees or doctorates in order to obtain highly contended, higher level jobs. Social Structures One of the main differences between Taiwanese social structures and those in the United States is the strong family connection maintained by the Taiwanese people. While Americans still view family as an important group in society, the feelings of filial piety in the United States are not as deep and motivating as they are in Taiwan. Also, religion, while still a factor in American culture is not as prevalent to the culture as it is in Taiwan. What are the implications for US businesses that wish to conduct business in Taiwan? Businesses seeking to conduct business within Taiwan should have a clear and complete understanding of how business is done in Taiwan. Not only should they learn laws and regulations which will be relevant to their desired business, but they must also study the culture to understand the people and what motivates and inspires them. Businesses from the United States who are studying the culture of Taiwan will discover important differences between American and Taiwanese ways of doing business. They will then need to incorporate policy which will successfully blend the needs and goals of their business with the needs and goals of the Taiwanese culture. Possible miscommunication Whenever companies conduct business in a foreign country, language must be taken into account. The TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s national language is Mandarin Chinese, with some of the population speaking Hakka along with some aboriginal dialects. There has been a strong push recently to learn English in Taiwan, with English classes being mandatory in school and a large number of English cram schools open for further training. Even so, the English level may be quite low, so American businesses seeking business opportunities in Taiwan should have interpreters who have a complete knowledge of both languages. An understanding of the culture is also important when communicating and research on cultural doÃ¢â¬â¢s and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts should be conducted before initiating communication to avoid confusion and unintentional offense. For example, it is offensive in Taiwanese culture to give a clock or watch to someone as a gift because it symbolizes the termination of the relationship. A full understanding of the culture will help businesses from the United States in forming good relationships and create good guanxi for their company in Taiwan (Stedham et al. , 2008). Accommodating religious freedom It is important for American businesses to understand and facilitate the different religious practices in Taiwan. As simple as insuring employees have adequate time off for important religious holidays and not requiring them to break their religious convictions, such as vegetarianism, respecting and accommodating the religious beliefs of the Taiwanese will help to insure the success of a prospective business there. The cultural element of avoiding conflict will help to make sure no religious discrimination or fighting will take place so businesses need not worry about that aspect as much as they do in America. Ethical policies Businesses from the United States with operations in Taiwan should have ethics policies that are written with the Taiwanese culture in mind. They should remember that, often times, there is no need to spell everything out specifically. With the concept of corporate social responsibility become more prevalent in Taiwan, it will be important for American business to highlight appropriate social involvement (Ip, 2007). Understand employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s family focus. One aspect that businesses can encourage their employees to focus on is family. This will demonstrate the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to one of TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s most important social structures, the family. The encouragement and facilitation of strong family ties will go a long way to establish a favorable public image for foreign companies operating within Taiwan. Effects of current political environment TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is currently independent of China; however, any foreign business in Taiwan would be wise to watch the political relationship between mainland China and Taiwan very closely. Taiwan has been slowly moving towards closer ties with China which would allow China to Ã¢â¬Å"assert increasing influence over Taiwan. As a consensus emerges in Taiwan on establishing closer relations with China, the thaw [of political tensions] is calling into question the United States' deeply ambiguous policy, which is supposed to serve both Taiwan's interests (by allowing it to retain its autonomy) and the United States' own (by guarding against an expansionist China)Ã¢â¬ (Gilley, 2010). Should China be allowed to exert control over TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and political environment it could drastically change the way foreign businesses are allowed to operate in Taiwan. The effects of national healthcare on business. While healthcare is not a major cultural issue, it is useful to note that Taiwan currently has nationalized healthcare, offering inexpensive healthcare to all their citizens. While some in Taiwan oppose this system of healthcare because it can be easily abused, national healthcare would affect businesses by lowering their employee coverage costs. Conclusion With favorable ties to the United States and growing acceptance of the Western world, Taiwan is a promising opportunity for businesses from the United States. With careful research and consideration of the culture, Taiwan could be a very profitable venture. American companies in Taiwan should be careful not to ignore the strong cultural elements in Taiwan, such as religion, family, and communication differences. However, because of TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s willingness and eagerness to work with foreign business and to expand its global presence, it is very open to foreign commerce. TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s rapid growth and solid economy can be a very useful tool in the future as they seek to gain wider global acceptance. TaiwanÃ¢â¬â¢s favorable economic situation provides the ideal environment for businesses from the United States. American businesses can take advantage of the available workforce and welcoming culture found in Taiwan. 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