Monday, September 30, 2019

Political Institutions Essay

The parliament which is officially known as the European Parliament is the only union’s body that directly elected. It is made up of 785 members who are elected for five year terms by universal suffrage and are determined by the political loyalty. By virtue of being the only elected body of the union, parliament reflects the more than 500 million citizen’s wishes, however, it has relatively weaker power as compared to the council in some areas such having the absolute legislative   powers. Its powers include co-owning the legislative and budgetary authority of the union with the council. Further, it has power over the commission which the council do not enjoy and hence earning it the praises that it is the most powerful and democratic legislature in the globe. [Parliament overview, 2007] Its current president who also doubles as its speaker is Hans-Gert Pottering elected in 2007. The council of the European Union which was also known as the Council of Ministers due to its composition, it is composed of national ministers, one per nation, who meets various capacities depending with the issue to be discussed e.g. if it is security matters being discussed then the respective ministers in charge of security matters in every nation attends the council. It co-holds both the legislative and budgetary powers with the parliament, and further it holds the executive powers, making it the main decision making organ of the EU. The power of the council is however, kept at bay through a rotating kind of its leadership, its presidency rotates between the member states every six months and therefore preventing any attempts to override the mandate of the council over the other unions institutions. Again, the decision making is subject to voting with majority or unanimity being set as the requirements, with the votes being allocated by the ratio of population. The council’s power also extends to the control of the other two pillars of the union namely; the common Foreign and Security Policy and the Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal matters. [The Council of the European Union, 2007] The commission of the European Communities forms the executive arm of the union; its composition includes one member each from the union’s states i.e. twenty seven. The members are elected on condition that they will not represent their respective national interests. The body’s main duty is to draft all the law of the union and has a monopoly of legislative inventiveness within the European Community pillar; however, the laws are subject to approval by both the parliament and the council. Again, its powers extend to overseeing the daily  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   activities of the union and also it has got a duty to up hold the law and treaties and hence playing the role of a â€Å"Guardian of the Treaties† that makeup the union. Its powers are put to check by the fact that the president who is the commissions head is nominated by the council and approved by the parliament. Other members of the commission who are known as the commissioners are proposed by member states in consultation with the commission’s president and again approved by the parliament. The commission’s current president is Jose Manuel Baroso who together with his commission was elected into office in 2004. [Institutions: Commission, 2007]   This is the supreme court of justice of the European Communities also known as the European Court of Justice; it acts on Union law matters. It is composed of twenty seven judges one apiece from the member states, the court president is chosen (elected) from among the 27, currently Vassilos Skouris is the occupier of the post. The courts major role is to make sure that the Union law is adhered to by all the member states, its supremacy is seen on the fact that the Union law overrides national laws of members nations. For instance in 2001 it ruled that a section of the national constitution of Germany was not in order with the Union law because it barred women from engaging in military roles. [20] The court of justice does not act all alone in matters concerning the Union law; it is assisted by two lesser courts known as the Court of First Instance of the European Communities (CFI) and Civil Service Tribunal. [Institutions: Court of Justice, 2007] The sensitivity of fraud cases and the fact that the Union’s Budget involved large amounts of money, an auditing body was necessary; the court of auditors is responsible for the monitoring of the expenditure of the union and preparing yearly audits on the Union’s budget. Its name does not necessarily imply any legal or judicial powers but it gives views on legislations that involve financial matters. It is composed of one member apiece from the union members and who are appointed by the council every six years, with the president being elected every three years from among them, currently Hubert Weber occupies the seat. [Institutions: Court of Auditors, 2007] With new laws and treaties being enacted chiefly to accommodate new members and new ideologies and partly to streamline the functioning of the Unions institutions, new institutions have been proposed to be created. Under Lisbon Treaty of Changes the following institutions are proposed; the European Council, which has been formerly acting as an informal body under the Council â€Å"of ministers†. Its inception will see it assuming the executive powers that were initially the preserve of the council of ministers and therefore becoming the highest political body of the Union. Other powers will include delineating the Union’s policy agenda and creating the momentum for integration, other features will be similar to that of the council of ministers. The other proposed institution is the European Central Bank, this bank is tipped to represent the interests of the euro-zone i.e. the fifteen states that have adopted the euro, and the main idea behind the formation of this body is to induce fiscal controls in order to sustain price stability. Its governance will include a board made national bank governors and a president appointed by the European Council; currently Jean-Claude Trichet is the president. [Draft Treaty modifying, 2007] The European Union system of government though unique can be likened to other models of governance, for instance, Germany’s federalism and the Swiss federal council where power is principally shared between the state and the federal government with the states having a principal say in the decision making process even at the federal level unlike in US where powers are clearly divided between the state and the federal government with the state having limited say over decision making process. The rotating presidency, the choice of lesser cities to host the headquarters of the Community Institutions, the spreading of executive powers between the institutions, are some of the   equal representation measures employed by the EU. [Borzel, Tanja A, 2002]    References:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   EU Law Blog, available at;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://eulaw.typad.com, accessed on November 26, 2008 Merging of the executives, available at;   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.enalu?lang=2&doc=473, accessed on November 26, 2008 EUR-Lex: Treaties, available at;

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Quality management focuses attention on continuous improvement Essay

Th e work of W. Edwards Deming is a cornerstone of the quality movement in management. 27 His story began in 1951, when he was invited to Japan to explain quality control techniques that had been developed in the United States. â€Å"When Deming spoke,† we might say, â€Å"the Japanese listened. † Th e principles he taught the Japanese were straightforward, and they worked: Tally defects, analyze and trace them to the source, make corrections, and keep a record of what happens afterward. Deming’s approach to quality emphasizes constant innovation, use of statistical methods, and commitment to training in the fundamentals of quality assurance. One outgrowth of Deming’s work was the emergence of total quality management, or TQM. Th is process makes quality principles part of the organization’s strategic objectives, applying them to all aspects of operations and striving to meet customers’ needs by doing things right the fi rst time. Most TQM approaches begin with an insistence that the total quality commitment applies to everyone in an organization, from resource acquisition and supply chain management, through production and into the distribution of fi nished goods and services, and ultimately to customer relationship management. The search for and commitment to quality is now tied to the emphasis modern management gives to the notion of continuous improvement—always looking for new ways to improve on current performance. 29 Th e goal is that one can never be satisfi ed; something always can and should be improved upon. Evidence-based management seeks hard facts about what really works. Looking back on the historical foundations of management, one thing that stands out is criticism by today’s scholars of the scientifi c rigor of some historical cornerstones, among them Taylor’s scientifi c management approach and the Hawthorne studies. The worry is that we may be too quick in accepting as factual the results of studies that are based on weak or even shoddy empirical evidence. And if the studies are fl awed, perhaps more care needs to be exercised when trying to apply their insights to improve management practices. Th is problem isn’t limited to the distant past. 30 A book by Jim Collins, Good to Great, achieved great acclaim and best-seller status for its depiction of highly successful organizations. But Collins’s methods and fi ndings have since been criticized by researchers. 32 And after problems appeared at many fi rms previously considered by him to be â€Å"great,† he wrote a follow-up book called How the Mighty Fall. 33 Th e point here is not to discredit what keen observers of management practice like Collins and others report. But it is meant to make you cautious and a bit skeptical when it comes to separating fads from facts and conjecture from informed insight. Today’s management scholars are trying to move beyond generalized impressions of excellence to understand more empirically the characteristics of high-performance organizations—ones that consistently achieve highperformance results while also creating high quality-of-work-life environments for their employees. Following this line of thinking, Jeff rey Pfeff er and Robert Sutton make the case for evidence-based management, or EBM. Th is is the process of making management decisions on â€Å"hard facts†Ã¢â‚¬â€that is, about what really works—rather than on â€Å"dangerous half-truths†Ã¢â‚¬â€things that sound good but lack empirical substantiation. Using data from a sample of some 1,000 fi rms, for example, Pfeff er and a colleague found that fi rms using a mix of well selected human resource management practices had more sales and higher profi ts per employee than those that didn’t. 35 Th ose practices included employment security, selective hiring, self-managed teams, high wages based on performance merit, training and skill development, minimal status diff erences, and shared information. Examples of other EBM fi ndings include challenging goals accepted by an employee are likely to result in high performance, and that unstructured employment interviews are unlikely to result in the best person being hired to fi ll a vacant position. 36 Scholars pursue a variety of solid empirical studies using proven scientifi c methods in many areas of management research. Some carve out new and innovative territories, while others build upon and extend knowledge that has come down through the history of management thought. By staying abreast of such

Saturday, September 28, 2019

A Separate Peace: Destroyed Everything Essay

In the 1940’s, World War II had a huge impact on the everyday lives of Americans. Many people had to sacrifice money, supplies, food and even lives to contribute to the war effort. However, the characters in John Knowles’ â€Å"A Separate Peace† appear to be sheltered from the influences of the international conflicts as a result of attending an all-boys boarding school. The novel focuses on the friendship between Finny and Gene, two friends who bonded during the carefree summer sessions at the Devon School. When the winter approaches, the students find themselves having to deal with stricter administration and rules. The new order and increasing impact of the war causes the students to stress and worry. In an effort to relieve the misery, Finny decides to organize a winter carnival for the pupils. Although the festivities of the winter carnival suggest that the boys have been successful in creating a separate peace, Knowles’ use of war imagery in describi ng the setting, prizes, and the boy’s behavior suggests that this peace is illusory. Although the setting of the carnival seems serene at first, a closer look at the descriptive language reveals that the Devon school is in a war-like state. The brutal winter causes the students to have a depressing view of their school life. The despair that the cold weather has brought with it causes Gene to loathe winter, he compares it to a â€Å"corrupt†¦conqueror† who’s presence has â€Å"destroyed everything†. In spite of getting ready for a carnival, Gene still finds it hard to return to the pleasant mood that he had felt during the summer semester. The difference between winter and summer signify the difference between times of war and times of peace. Like the winter season, the war appears to demolish everything, including the feeling of happiness. On the day of the festival, the students still cannot get rid of his glum attitude. Knowles describes the Saturday of the carnival to be â€Å"battleship gray†. Through the use of foreshadowing, th e author reveals the tension among the boys. Even though the students manage to get along at first, the sullen weather hints to the clash that will take place later on. As the activities are taking place, Gene shows amazement at the fact that everyone appears to be so careless and unrestrained. The narrator feels that the carnival had allowed the students to be liberated from the â€Å"gray encroachments of 1943†. The carnival permitted the students to have one day of freedom from the strict administrations at the school. However, Gene automatically connects the warm feeling to the horrific war. He realizes that the lack of restraint on the students is only temporary; they will soon have to return back to their normal lives after the carnival. This is similar to the way the peaceful life at the Devon school is only for the time being, the boys will eventually have to face the reality of the war when they graduate. Despite Finny’s effort to recreate the lighthearted summer life by organizing the winter carnival, he is unsuccessful because the school is not the friendly haven it once was. The rewards offered at the winter carnival reflec t the boys’ loss of innocence as they struggle to become men. At school, the students are taught to prepare themselves to fight in the war. This is the reason why one of the sought after prizes is a â€Å"set of York barbells†. It reveals the desires of the young men to serve their country. The teenagers all want to become great soldiers and to do so, they must start training as early as possible. Knowles shows that the characters are growing up and are accepting of their future in the war. The winnings also exposes that the adolescents are no longer the innocent kids they once were. A piece of hair â€Å"cut under duress† that once belonged to the â€Å"professional town belle† was placed on the prize table. The fact that the boys are after locks of hair from a prostitute means that they are going through hormonal changes and are testosterone-driven. As a result of not knowing how to deal with these developments, the students resort to taking forceful actions to fulfill their desires. Gene’s classmate, Brinker goes through great lengths to get awards which include doing irresponsible things. However, he does not show remorse for these actions. Brinker places the money from the â€Å"Headmaster’s Discretionary Benevolent Fund† on the prize table with â€Å"silent dignity†. As the kids grow older, they begin to act unethically and show a disregard for authority. As they lose their innocence, their moral compass also disintegrates. Although they are struggling to become adults, they end up acting immature and childish. The prizes appear to be normal on the surface but the deeper meaning reveals the teens’ malicious behavior. The normally well-behaved students act unruly and aggressively suggesting that they are taking on the demeanor of soldiers they are destined to become. During the planning of the carnival, the boys take on roles that parallel military positions. Brinker naturally played the part of the commander, he â€Å"super vises the transfer† and walks around â€Å"giving orders† to other students. The boys are acting more and more like soldiers as they grow older. When they get together, they operate as if they were actually in the military. The violent nature of the boys becomes evident when Knowles points out that the designated trumpet player, Chet, blew the â€Å"barbaric call of a bullfight†. The author is comparing the students to bulls, both are wild and brutal. The boys are no longer civil and friendly with each other; they have turned against their classmates. Like many real soldiers, the boys appear to be obsessed with violence and cannot contain their craving to fight. Though the carnival starts off good-naturedly and fun, it soon turns ugly when the cider-fueled boys show their savage behavior. They break â€Å"apart into a riot† and explode â€Å"like a bomb†. Despite Finny’s intention of having a jovial carnival, they young men ruin this chance by unexpectedly acting out. They could not hold back their destructive ways any longer, and the carnival gave them the perfect opportunity to break out. As it is in the war, peace at the Devon School is not possible and violence is inevitable. Chapter 9 ends with a telegram from Leper, a former student who had enlisted in the army, informing Gene that he has escaped from the military. This shocks the students back to reality as they come to the understanding that the war is real and that they are unprepared for such dangers. Using war-centered word choice, John Knowles makes it very clear that the feeling of peace that the characters feel is deceptive and short lived. Therefore, all the boys can do is wish for the war to end so they can find a real and permanent peace.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Thin-Layer Chromatographic Analysis Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Thin-Layer Chromatographic Analysis - Lab Report Example 2) Aspirin has the ability to lower the possibility of cancer. According to a recent research, patients who use aspirin are 38% less affected by this disease. Also, using aspirin, it was possible to lower mortality from cancer by 15% and make metastasis less common (Clayden et al. 300). Undoubtedly, aspirin is highly versatile and can be used in multiple situations. But also it has side effects which must be considered before treatment with aspirin is undertaken. For example, aspirin lowers the possibility of formation of clotted blood in the body, which leads to lowering the risk of a stroke. Because of this aspirin cannot be used by people with tendencies to bleed. Also, aspirin cannot be used by pregnant women, because this drug increases the percentage of mortality of infants, stillbirths, prolongs pregnancy and promotes maternal bleeding. It is also important to note that children who recover from chicken pox or flu must never be treated with aspirin. As it is known, this drug significantly promotes Reye’s syndrome if given to children in the described conditions. In these cases, acetaminophren must be prescribed. On the diagram above a solvent that will be used in separation is placed inside a TLC vessel. Usually, no more than 1 cm thick is necessary. In order to prevent solvent evaporation, the vessel is closed with a lid. A TLC plate with two spots is placed inside the vessel. The first spot (Black) is a known compound; the second is unknown (White). Initially, both compounds start at the same level (a) and the solvent pushes both compounds up. Gradually, the plate becomes wet with the solvent. The plate should be removed once the solvent reaches the level (b), dried and placed under UV. If both spots travelled the same distance, then the compounds were identical; and they are different if the travel distances are different. Capillary force is a well-known force that moves the solvent up the TLC plate. During this movement the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) - Essay Example Technological advances in design of all these modes of transportation have made them far safer than they have ever been since their inception. Aircraft are some of the most technologically advanced systems today, with some having the capacity to travel at the speed of sound, others capable of transcontinental flight, still others practically built to be fortresses in the sky. Ships have become more massive, or more streamlined. They have become floating island cities. Trains nowadays are technological marvels of speed and safety, carrying people from one place to another at a fraction of the time they used to. However, despite all these technological leaps, there have still been instances that disasters strike, and none of these modes of transportation have been spared from the rare occurrences of disaster. Most accidents are external in nature – lightning strikes an aircraft, an iceberg rams a ship, a bridge collapses under the weight of a train. Because of the ease at which these transportation agents bring people to their destinations, there has been a bigger volume of commuters in the world today than ever before. Therefore, there are far more people who start passengers and end up as victims of an accident, and the sad reality is, they could potentially be casualties in the final calculation. Recent accidents like that of Air France 447 where the debris of the ill-fated aircraft, an ultra-modern Airbus A330 jet carrying 228 passengers, have yet to be found, remind us of the importance of having equipment that allows for quick location of an accident. Casualties usually mount as more time passes from the time of the accident to the time rescue teams arrive. There has to be a way to decrease this time because every second literally means lives. To solve this problem, the distress radio beacons or emergency beacons were developed. They are basically tracking

Impact of a Risk Premium on the Empirical Testing of FOREX Essay

Impact of a Risk Premium on the Empirical Testing of FOREX - Essay Example In line with this, the empirical tests test for the availability of atypical or risk –accustomed earning opportunities. However, in the case of ambiguity and uncertain venture such as spot and forward (JACQUE, 2014) speculation, it is complex to interpret the empirical tests relative to the market efficiency. The fundamental model applied in testing marketing efficiency is the joint hypothesis, which means that two hypotheses are tested at the same time. In such cases, when the risk premium is in existence it creates an impact which shifts the equilibrium return on currency trading toward a high point. This implies that, the profits attributed to the currency trading do not show market inefficiency if these returns are fewer than the suitable risk premium (ULLRICH, 2009). This impact can be explained by an example of a corporation, which hedges, and in return, its financial experience to the currency risk reduces. This implies that, in the absence of a risk premium, the firm d oes not sacrifice any return in the process of risk reduction. If the corporation faces high cost of financial misery, then this nature of reduced volatility will benefit its operations (RECORD, 2003). This implies that the effect of risk premium on a firm is immensely attributed to the hedging of a corporation when the risk premium exists. In addition, the risk premium on empirical testing invokes significance and negative relationship with the expected future spot rate. In addition, the premium risk offers a more explanatory note relative.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Carmax System in China Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Carmax System in China - Essay Example The company expects to open five new stores in 2012 in the U.S market, with a total of 103 used car stores across U.S by the end of 2011, making CarMax the largest used car company in the U.S. The online market is the most active market, with more than 75% of used car customers in the country visiting the company’s websites, or buying their cars online (CarMax, 2011). The company has an integrated RFID system that tracks vehicles as an inventory management system; the system tracks vehicles throughout the purchase life; from the purchase, to reconditioning, test drives to the final sale (CarMax, 2011). The use of the Radio Frequency Identification ensures that all vehicles in the company are scanned accordingly, tracked to prevent any possible theft or losses in the process. The use of RFID makes each vehicle to be linked to sales consultant, and aids in tracking the market pricing in wholesale of vehicles. The use of the RFID technology is critical in ensuring the management has the required real time information concerning storage and transportation, inventory, pricing, vehicle transfers, auctions, productivity, credit process, information among other processes (CarMax, 2011). In addition to the above inventory management, the Electronic Repair Order System (ERO) is strategically used in reconditioning processes, and procedures in the company. The technology enhances quality, while reducing costs, which are then transferred to the customer as enhanced services and profitability (CarMax, 2011). The above information technology in inventory tracking, and in managing the repair works ensure that the company has a competitive advantage over other second hand car dealers in U.S. CarMax in United States market is highly developed with leading technologies in inventory and repair process. This is due to the high volume of cars handed by the company annually, with large auction stores; about 103 stores across the U.S. CarMax Co. Ltd is a car accessory distribu tor for Hotai Motor Co. Ltd, a Taiwan based distributor of Japanese car maker, Toyota (CNA, 2011). The company started its operations in China in March 2011, by initiating two branches dealing with used cars, and car systems. According to Hotai, used car market in china is still at its infancy as at 2011, but with a great growth potential expected. In China, the total car sales are about 20 million units, compared to the 300,000 units sold annually in Taiwan (CNA, 2011). Currently, the high sales volume of used cars in China portrays a rapid increase in the used cars market that will certainly surpass the purchase of new cars in the near future. A Study report conducted by Arthur D. Little, a world renown management consulting firm, indicates the annual sales volume of used cars in China will surpass the sales of new cars, by the year 2020 (Tong, 2011). The compound annual growth of used cars in China between 2006 and 2012 was about 25%, and predicted to grow at much higher rates in the future. However, the Chinese used car market is on the budding stage, with more Chinese realizing a fertile market in used cars, boosted by increasing business in rental cars. The standard of used cars will mature with time, and the ratio of used cars to new cars expected to be more than 1 in the near future (Tong, 2011). Therefore, CarMax looks forward for a booming business in used car market in China in the near future. The improving used car market has led CarMax to open two new branches in China; in preparation for the expected high demand of used cars in future. China has become the world leading market for RFID by value. For example, in 2008 the East Asia countries bought an equivalent of about $2.8 billion of the $5.29 worth of RFID spent globally. China alone spent $1.96 billion to

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

ECommerce and ECRM and eCommerce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

ECommerce and ECRM and eCommerce - Essay Example Businesses and other productive sectors used to experience problems carrying out their duties due the communication breakdown and the ineffective methods which used to exist (Barnes, 2000 P. 34). According to Mwenda (2004), for one to appreciate the importance the new computer-aided communication can have, he/she must consider the dynamics of the same in that, it has made the world a global village since every one of us can communicate with his/her accomplices every where they are instantly (P. 41). Businesses have been made efficient since the transactions are made over the net in a faster way than we could have imagined sometimes back, advertisements are nowadays being made over the net, which is cheap. The important sectors of our economies are now safe in terms of communication due to the coming of this technology. Internet has been used for so many beneficial activities in sports, culture and the general wellbeing oh the human race (Richmond, J 2003 P. 102). On the same note, websites are being used by organizations to market their products and also to carry out transactions. For them to be efficient they should be well planned for and the organization of the materials should be in order. In addition, it should be attractive for the users. Intuitive and good level of innovation as well as easy navigation is an important issue for every website that is to sell the ideas of an organization. Poorly designed web pages cause confusion, frustration and total dissatisfaction to would be potential customers. This can sometimes cause them to opt out of using your services and consider using that of your competitor. With website metrics data, a company can test different operations to see how potential customers react and view the data to determine the overall navigation style for your site to take a notch higher. The use of website metrics is also called website analytics and is a tool for enhancing customers experience as well as ensuring that

Monday, September 23, 2019

Types of Erosion and Transportation of Materials by the River Essay

Types of Erosion and Transportation of Materials by the River - Essay Example Erosion takes place hand in hand with transportation. Transportation of materials in a stream or a river starts when water overcomes friction. Material that has been set loose through erosion is then transported along the stream. There are three main processes by which water in a stream or river transports material; suspension, traction and saltation, and solution. Suspension occurs when material composed of the finest particles such as silt and clay is lifted by the turbulence of water and transported away. Rivers that are more turbulent and fast-flowing carry more suspension. This explains why a stream or river gets muddy towards its mouth. The velocity of the water is greater here. Traction and saltation occur when larger particles are carried away. Saltation refers to when a material such as gravel and pebbles that are too heavy to be carried away in suspension are bounced along by the water force. Traction, on the other hand, occurs when larger material like boulders is pushed and rolled along the river or stream bed by the force of the water. The third process, solution, occurs when materials such as minerals and dissolving rocks dissolve in the water and are carried along. This happens mostly in areas whose geology is limestone with water that is slightly acidic. Stream capacity refers to the sum capacity of residue that a stream can move, transport, or carry. Water streams carry sediment. Different streams carry different amounts of sediment. This capacity depends on the velocity and volume of water that is being channeled. Stream competence, on the other hand, refers to the sedimentary particle size that a stream can move, transport, or carry. Again, each stream has its competency for the sedimentary particle size it can move by its velocity and volume. This competency changes with changes in velocity and stream volume. Such changes are caused by a variety of topography factors and seasonal flooding.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

A Good Teacher Essay Example for Free

A Good Teacher Essay Plants are shaped by cultivation and men by education. We are born weak, we need strength; we are born totally unprovided, we need aid; we are born stupid, we need judgement. Everything we do not have at our birth and which we need when we are grown is given to us by education. (Jean Jacques Rousseau) It can be seen that education is one of the most important factor of our life. It is the tool that shapes us intellectually, socially, emotionally and personally. The kind of education that we receive depends highly on the educators that we encounter. A positive or negative encounter can impact our entire life. Therefore, if it is intended for today’s students to be responsible citizens of tomorrow’s society, then all teachers should emulate the roles of a â€Å"good teacher†. A good teacher is one who is knowledgeable of learners and their development, knowledgeable of subject matter and curriculum goals, creates a good learning environment and†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. It can be noted that from the interview conducted, Teacher X exemplifies most of the features of a â€Å"good teacher† and is therefore considered as one. Before entering in a classroom, a â€Å"good teacher† should be highly knowledgeable of the subject area they will be teaching and have a clear understanding of how to organize the curriculum in order to meet the need of the students and the objectives of the school. The interview highlighted that Teacher X is one of the chief writers of the curriculum for the examination body of her institution. It will be ones belief that a personnel would not have been bestowed such privilege if she was not competent in her subject area. She also outlined that her learning objectives are based on the knowledge, ability and skill of the students. This further exemplifies her since Darlington-Hammond and Baratz-Snowden (2005) states that based on the learning needs of their students, teachers must make a wide variety of curriculum decisions, ranging from the evaluation and selection of materials to the design and sequencing of tasks, assignments and activities to the assessment of learning to guide further teaching. The development of the curriculum in light of the students’ interest fosters intrinsic motivation and stimulates the students’ passion for learning a specific subject area. If given the opportunity for input, students’ will generate ideas and set goals that even the teacher had not thought of. At this point teachers should embrace the fact that they do not know everything and should be willing to learn from their students’ in the process. A â€Å"good teacher† must take the time to know her students. Know not only their names or facial representations, but their readiness level, learning styles and interest. Students are all individuals who learn at different rates and in different ways. Tomlinson (2001) outlines that students learn better if tasks are a close match for their skills and understanding of a topic (readiness), if tasks ignite curiosity or passion in a student (interest) and if the assignment encourages students to work in a preferred manner (learning style). The classrooms of our society can be extremely diverse, so teachers must be able to differentiate intrsuctions to meet the individual needs of each student.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System Case Study

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System Case Study   Discussion Questions What inspired Skullcraft to pursue ERP even though the company had just 26 employees? Solution An Enterprise Resource Planning system is an integrated system which helps the organization to manage its resources; inventory, procurement, supply chain, finance, human resource etc. are few of the many resources an ERP helps to manage. Although, the company had just 26 employees, an ERP system will enhance the managing of resources which is not limited to just human resources. The following facts will justify the implementation of the ERP system: The company was rivalling Sony in the U.S. headphones market with sales of up to $37 million. The company had around 200 to 300 percent annual growth rate. The business had to handle large amounts of transactions. The finance department was using Excel spreadsheets and Quickbooks to manage the books. Wide distribution of products. No product tracking through supply chain till ERP was implemented. In a nutshell, Skullcraft was a small business with transactions comparable to a big enterprise. Thus managing resources was getting more and more complicated as the company grew in sales and investing in an ERP system will help the company manage its resources in a more efficient way. Moreover, as the ERP system was fully hosted, the company did not need to manage a separate ERP infrastructure which was a bonus for them. What features caused Skullcraft to choose SAPs ByDesign? Solution SAPs ByDesign was a unique system which fulfilled Skullcrafts each and every requirement. After evaluating many systems, Beth Siron chose ByDesign for the following reasons: SAPs ByDesign was a fully system hosted system meaning that it did not required additional information system infrastructure to be implemented by Skullcraft. The organization would use the ERP system over the internet which made it easy for each and every department to use it from anywhere. It enabled big business practices for managing financials, inventory, customer relations, supply chain etc. in a format accessible to small businesses. This was perfect a was the small enterprise with annual growth rate of 200 to 300 percent. It helped Skullcraft to track the products through the supply chain. The ERP system was enabled the company to forecast future demand. Thus, the software did everything a big companys Information System would do but without the additional infrastructure and a team to manage it. These features where perfect for Skullcraft which was a small firm with transactions equal to a large firm. Critical Thinking Questions How do you think Skullcraft was able to maintain a small staff while increasing production 200 to 300 percent annually? Solution Rick Alden saw a unique business opportunity in selling high-end radically designed headphones to Skiers and Skateboaders. The company was also the first one to enable users to switch between music listening and cell phone conversations over headphones. The reason behind the tremendous growth was the target market and distribution channel. The company first targeted specialty ski and skate shops and then later large retail chains. Specialty retail shops attracted large amounts of extreme sports fanatics which put Skullcraft on the map in the headphones industry. Even with just 26 employees, the company was effectively able to manage its operations specially production and distribution. It is not unusually for a company to have a tremendous growth rate with such a small workforce. If operations are effectively managed, growth can be increased without comparable investment in additional resources. The company may have had the production outsourced which makes sense as a small workforce cannot produce and maintain such large product demand. Moreover, the company could have arranged the goods to the picked up at the manufacturers workshop and dropped at the specialty retail stores. Thus by effectively managing the flow of goods, the company must have been able to increase its production up to 200 to 300 percent with just 26 employees. Do you think Skullcraft is unusual in its size and needs? What other businesses can you think of that fit the Skullcraft model? Solution No, Skullcraft is not unusual in its needs and size. It I common for a company to have a tremendous growth rate even with a small size. Many small business offer services to a large number of customers. Skullcrafts Rick Alden realized an exceptional business opportunity which became a huge success and helped the company experience a growth rate of 200 to 300 percent annually. Also, the company was able to effectively manage and integrate operations resulting in huge sales while maintaining a small human capital. Other businesses that fit the Skullcraft model are: IT firms like GoDaddy which provide domain services to small and large enterprises enterprises can serve a large number of customer with its small size. The advancement in internet services enables such firms to stay small and serve large. Thus, investing in an ERP system will enable GoDaddy to manage operations more effectively. Freight Forwarding firms consolidate good from various customers into one big container. This helps cut down the costs of shipping small amounts of goods. They use the infrastructure of big firms and manage operations right at their desks. Also, and ERP system will help freight forwarders to track the goods through the supply chain and mange customer relations. A small logistics firms manages the operations and uses resources of other organizations to transport the goods. Their small size demands huge amounts of resources. And ERP in a logistics firm with help the employees track the goods, manage the finance, maintain customer relations etc. Medical firms, architecture firms, designing and developing firms and many other IT sector firms are small in size but their needs are huge. Thus, Skullcrafts size and needs are not unusual as it is very common for a firm to remain small but serve a large number of customers which will inevitably increase their needs. Group Members Dhruvit Shah Praveenchand Nair Abhay Khurana Brahamdeep Singh

Friday, September 20, 2019

Cultural Difficulties of Joint Venture in China

Cultural Difficulties of Joint Venture in China The benefits in Joint Venture: JV gives more resources, greater capacity and increased technical expertise. It acts as a representative for marking the companys entrance to a new market when still it is at its learning stage. The mutual trusted partnership and co-operation will lead to its success. It strengthens the long term relationships or it may also collaborate on short term projects which lead them to access a new market and access to new technologies and they can also learn how to tackle the cultural difficulties if they are successful. The risks in joint venture: partnering with another company in an entirely new market is a bit risky. It takes more time and effort to build the right relationship. the problems will likely arise if the objectives of the JV are not clearly mentioned and explained or communicated. Normally the companies have their own objectives which will be different than the JV objectives. Imbalance in levels of expertise, assets and investments will lead to a poor integration and co-operation. Different culture and management styles will also lead to poor performance and co-operation. If both the companies doesnt provide necessary leadership support in early and developing stage of the JV it will also lead to disaster like dissolution. Cultural difficulties may occur for a global company in JV follows below: Understanding the cultural environments is critical to the success of the organisation or a company. Culture is important and it makes difference in the management. Variable  culture and different management styles will lead to dissolution of the venture.   Cultural differences always influence the way of making decision and solving problems. this also may lead to disaster. Unmanageable complexity, loss of autonomy, information  uncertainty and long term orientation will lead to failure of the venture. Human resource management plays a vital role in the Joint venture. Poor human resource  management will lead to ultimate failure of the venture. The companies on their own have different structural style but in a joint venture there is a  different style. It has been learnt in early days the Chinese use so called shame technique. The Chinese do not regard people as mature until they are at least 40yrs old. Most of the Chinese companies are part owned by the GOVT so the business decisions  making are done or influenced by govt burucracies and this will also consume more time  so this may also lead to impatience of global company. Within the advertising industry in China, advertisements have also not been spared from  controversy and national debate. With a strong influence of multi-ethnic Chinese culture  and history, companies are constantly challenged to convey their messages to potential  consumers effectively, accurately, and yet not appear offensive. While the Chinese  embraces globalization, they are not a least hesitant from voicing their dissatisfaction  when the contents of advertisements threaten their strong Chinese values. Western expatriate managers in JVs could be extraordinary. This could make an  expatriate assignment to JV in China and it will be a very frustrating experience. Presumably, cross-cultural training may be particularly helpful for the adjustment of westerners encountering the frustrating work environment in JV. In comparison, the  adjustment of Western expatriate executives in other types of organisations may not be  facilitated as much by cross-cultural training. Senior managers in China have good technical training, but it is not common for Chinese  managers to have formal management training. Besides, they may have little  international experience or understanding of a free-market economy. Such differences  may create substantial problems for expatriate managers in China. Disparity in education  and background may result in lower affinity on an interpersonal level. Differences in age  and experience may lead to further complications. A negative circle can easily take hold,  creating a considerable amount of stress. Unaware of the finer nuances of the local  cultural and social context, Western expatriates may quickly attribute their inevitable  business difficulties to the ineptness of their Chinese JV partners. This attribution could  be reinforced when they are reminded that they have been invited to China to improve on  the business deficiencies of their Chinese counterparts. To the Chinese, the word  contract means only a commercial agreement, not a legally binding document. Signing  a contract is a formal confirmation that they intend to do business with you, not an  indication of how they are planning to conduct business. It is well known that real  negotiation in China begins only after the contract is signed. Any problems arising  there from are due to the fact that the officials in the negotiation process have limited  authority and also tend to interpret the provision of the contract from their own cultural,  political and economic viewpoint. Also, the government frequently changes the  laws; hence, parties to the contract try to keep the arrangements as open and flexible as  possible. Recommendations to enable a joint venture: China is booming market which has  more than 1.3 billion of consumers and it has retained a considerable attraction for  international business. Initially, the Joint Venture law from 1979 only allowed foreign  companies to invest in joint ventures (JVs), but from 1987 onwards they could also form  wholly foreign-owned enterprises. Although the number of wholly foreign-owned  enterprises are increasing at a faster rate. So if a global company wants to market their  products in the Chinese market pyramid then the best option to attain their goal is to  make a JV and reach their goal in china while still in the developing process. China  is distinctly different from most other countries and would be a challenging destination  for Western business expatriates. Their need for effective cross-cultural skills appears to  be substantial, as they have to adjust to a fundamentally different cultural and social  context than their own. That adjustment may be facilitated by means of cross-cultural  training, there is inconclusive evidence of its effectiveness the impact of such training  may be contingent on circumstances at the host location. Hence, the challenges  facing Western expatriate managers in JV could be extraordinary. This could make an  expatriate assignment to a very frustrating experience. Presumably, cross-cultural  training may be particularly helpful for the adjustment of westerners encountering the  frustrating work environment in JV. In comparison, the adjustment of Western expatriate  executives in other types of organisations may not be facilitated as much by cross-cultural training. In organisational settings totally dominated by the foreign parent,  Western expatriates may encounter a less frustrating internal work environment. It is best that the global and foreign company both should seek due representation in the  top management group. They both should offer enough leadership to provide a better  developing process. Human resource management plays a vital role in joint venture before starting the  process for the joint venture they should go for look see process in which they analyse  the key factors like how they are going to train and employ staffs from china with the  help of the JV company, by studying the cultural advantages and disadvantages and what  are the resources they will be needed from the parent company and from the foreign  company. Next the key task should be picking the right person for the right job and they  should also keep in mind that in china they consider the person is mature when at least  they are 40 yrs old others will be considered as kids, so they should keep the age in mind  when they are appointing key persons in the company. Language training may vary from brief survival language instruction to extensive,  immersion training, aiming for complete spoken and written fluency. Host language  ability may serve several purposes. Besides facilitating communication with locals, it  may also demonstrate an attitude of attempting to learn about the host culture, enabling  one to be polite, and permitting cultural understanding not otherwise possible. They three key dimensions of in-country adjustment: (1) adjustment to work; (2) adjustment to interacting with host nationals; and (3) adjustment to the general non-work environment. For a successful company it should establish a good relation with the partner company to learn the cross culture and what are the key tasks they should concentrate to acquire the required knowledge for implementing the process to form a greater JV company. They should provide training for the people in the organisation to understand basic tenets of Chinese values, norms, and behaviours through cross-cultural training may facilitate the daily work routines of the Western expatriates increasing their work adjustment. In a Joint venture both the companies should learn their foreign languages in order to improve the communication and share information which will lead them to success in the joint venture. Both companies should share their resources, technology and analyse the aims and objectives of the company to succeed in the JV. Marketing is one of the major tasks in the joint venture company are any company. Marketing: Marketing, among all business functions, is most down-to-earth in terms of dealing with customers. As ordinary customers, every one of us already knows about  marketing. After all, it is all around us. Many people may be under the impression  that marketing is only selling and advertising, but it is actually only the tip of the  marketing iceberg. There exists a massive network of people and activities, competing  for customers attention and purchases. In todays marketplace, marketing must be  understood in the new sense of satisfying customer needs. They define marketing as  the process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer  relationships in order to capture value from customers in return. The company has to understand the marketplace and customer needs and wants. Therefore, the company needs to research its customers and the market place in order to collect and manage marketing information and customer data. The second step, designing a customer driven marketing strategy, takes place once the market place and customers are fully understood. The company will select which customers to serve through market  segmentation and targeting. A value proposition will also be decided through  differentiation and positioning. After deciding on its overall marketing strategy, in the  third step, the company is ready to construct a marketing programme, which  transforms abstract strategies into real value for customers. The programme is also  known as the marketing mix which consists of 4 elements (the 4Ps)-product, price,  place and promotion. The fourth step, which is actually throughout the whole  marketing process, is to build profitable relationships and create cu stomer delight. To  achieve the goal, the company must establish strong relationships with marketing  partners as well. The fifth step is when the company can finally reap the fruits of its strong customer relationships by capturing value from customers in return. Once the  company has created satisfied and loyal customers, it can capture customer lifetime  value with a result of increased share of market and customer. The marketing mix starts with product strategy. Product covers more than the physical goods the company wants to sell. It is the goods-and-service combination the company offers to the target market. The company has to be aware of the advertisements which they produce this may also incur some problems because within the advertising industry in China, advertisements have also not been spared from controversy and national debate. With a strong influence of multi-ethnic Chinese culture and history, companies are constantly challenged to convey their messages to potential consumers effectively, accurately, and yet not appear offensive. While the Chinese embraces globalization, they are not a least hesitant from voicing their dissatisfaction when the contents of advertisements threaten their strong Chinese values. Chinese culture at the level of national culture, which is best embodied in the values held by its people. A value system is seen as a relatively permanent perceptual framework that influences an individuals behaviour. Chinese cultural value system is so unique that it distinguishes Chinese culture from Western cultures and the other Eastern cultures. Chinese culture is composed of traditional culture, communist ideology. The key to understand the traditional Chinese culture is Confucianism. Having competed with the other schools of thought in history, such as Taoism, Buddhism, etc., Confucianism is undisputedly the most influential thought, which forms the foundation of the Chinese cultural tradition and still provides the basis for the norms of Chinese interpersonal behaviour If the HR department and the operations department are clear with the Chinese culture and able to differentiate between them then it will reduce the risk variable culture organisation. The first key and method to market a product is to adopt cultural approach in marketing. Culture penetrates our inner being subconsciously and at a deep level. World cultures  share many common features. it is highly risky to ignore the potential influences generated by distinctive Chinese culture on marketing outcomes. It can lead to embarrassing mistakes, or more importantly, little rewards after all the efforts on marketing. Strategic management has to be global, whereas marketing management largely needs to be tailored to local contexts; therefore, an intercultural orientation to marketing best serves a global strategic view. Product is the central element in the market offering. localization in China is to appeal to Chinese customers taste. The production department should always keep in mind that brand new designs for a single market may be very effective in terms of delivering customer value for a specific market. Whereas, it cannot be applied to a wide range because the costs shoot up. Price is a significant element of communication and a decisive element in the social interaction between buyer and seller. It endorses their agreement and shapes their relationship, immediately and in the long term. For customers, price is a means of evaluating products in terms of social representations strongly akin to culture. The major priority lies in capturing the most customer value at the lowest cost, which is achieved by sourcing locally. cultures influence on pricing seems a little weak. Pricing is a big problem facing many marketing executives. The rest of the marketing mix must be taken into account while marketers decide how to price. The choice of place or distribution is one of the two elements of the marketing mix, which are essential in pushing the product towards the customer. Due to that reason the distribution forms subtle relationships with consumers by means of direct contact, it also plays a role as a cultural filter. Companys promotion mix also called its marketing communication. Mix consists of the specific blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling and direct-marketing tools. The company uses the set of tools to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relationships. Ideally if the company carefully coordinate these promotion elements to deliver a clear, consistent, and compelling message about the organization and its products then it can capture the market. And there are situation like you can only appoint Chinese officials only for certain market strategy and product developing, if the necessary steps had been taken by both of the companies then the JV will lead to great success. And there are necessities to have a relation ship in Chinese govt bureaucracies to have better understanding and learning of laws. Multinational companies or global company face more complicated marketing environments when dealing with customers cultivated in different cultures in the times of globalization. The JV helps in these situations so it is best to become a JV and focus on the market after studying the cultural differences thoroughly. There exist other concerns apart from culture, such as the local marketing environment, the companys long-term strategic plan. The marketing should be culture conscientious, they should perform locally as well as be customer value oriented, holding a global view. The key to success in joint venture is  the global company and the foreign company should have mutual understanding and trust on each other. In organizational communication, people are mainly to express him self through language to express ideas, concepts and facts. Language is the foundation of effective communication So it is best to keep a common language to communicate between the people. To improve cross-cultural communication skills as an effective measure is to develop cross-cultural training programs. These training programs should focus on training efficiency and effectiveness, avoid engaging in forms of training objectives and training should be based on object-choice training content, training content selection based training methods. These methods will help the organisation to run in smoother way. It is true that global companies cannot impose their ways of doing business on China. On the other hand, China actually wants and needs overseas firms to introduce more modern practices as a way of whipping domestic businesses into shape. So there will be success for the joint venture firms if they focus in the right direction at the right time. They should always analyse their aims and objectives it will lead them to success. Even though they are from different cultural backgrounds they should exceed in visualising their goal by communicating each other and passing through to even the lowest grade staffs. This reduces misunderstanding and their performance improvement can be seen. Due to the globalisation even the Chinese also try to keep up with the current trends in the market to survive so this will also help in a matter of fact for the joint venture company.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Comparative Fascism in Europe :: Essays Papers

Comparative Fascism in Europe Is it â€Å"easier† to write a fascist credo than an anti-fascist credo? Why or why not? Fascism was an enforced State while antifascism was a chosen opposition Defining a fascist credo is difficult because the fascists built their support and policy on negative integration. This was coupled with an alliance and hostile takeover of the political right. If the fascists were on the right, then, their most obvious enemies would be on the left. With street brawls and political assassinations, the Socialists most assuredly were an opponent of fascism. Was socialism, then, the antifascist movement? While the political fighting occurred between left and right, the fascists opposed another large group as well: the liberal establishment. The fascists eventually took violent action against liberalism as well, in the form of World War Two. Thus, fascism was against these political groups, but were those political groups antifascist in nature or in action? The answer is quite simply yes, these groups were antifascist. The common element between the antifascist groups was that joining them and being active within them was a voluntary action; this is opp osed to life in fascist regimes, wherein people were forced to become fascist. In this sense, fascism was totalitarian, because it made everyone become part of the system or else wanted by the police. The freedom in the liberal system, wherein people were Catholic, democratic, socialist, communist, and so many other things, was in opposition to the very idea of that freedom being taken away. People willingly joined these groups, making an antifascist credo easier to define, because it was a choice to be antifascist. Certainly a more complex definition of fascism is required. However, the framers of fascist thought itself, Mussolini and Hitler, never truly bothered to define fascism for their supporters or for posterity. Mussolini tried in the Enciclopaedia Italiana of 1932, published a full 10 years after Mussolini took power. Mussolini said that his â€Å"own doctrine, even in this period, had always been a doctrine of action† (Mussolini, 586). This is the most obvious facet of fascism, its love of action; it is in the name of action that no true doctrine was ever laid out (Mussolini, 587). Mussolini proceeded from there to explain fascism in negative terms, saying: â€Å"For us fascists, the State is not merely a guardian†¦nor is it an organization with purely material aims†¦nor is it a purely political creation, divorced from all contact with the complex material reality which makes up the life of the individual and life of the people as a whole.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Distance Education Essay -- Teaching Educating School Essays

Distance Education "Distance education is a process that creates and provides access to learning when time and distance separate the source of information and the learners"(Zhang, 1998, p.1). Distance education defies time and space and can help create a "virtual schoolhouse, or a ‘classroom without walls’"(Wheat, 1998, p.1). The "need to take the distance out of education has not been driven largely by sheer need to bridge physical separations. It has been based mainly on providing access as open as possible to those who are willing to avail themselves of the opportunities education affords them"(Tam, 1998, p.3). "Education needs to reach those who are disadvantaged by location, finance, time, and resources"(Tam, 1998, p.3). Distance learning can also reach students "with an unusual learning needs" or "unusual emotional problems", who need to take "atypical courses", or who have "visual learning styles"(Dede, 1990, p.3). "Distance learning is a strategy educational institutions are in itially using to overcome inadequacies of local resources for meeting learners’ needs"(Dede, 1990, p.3). "Distance learning is hardly a new idea; correspondence courses have been offered since the mid-1800’s"(Sonner, 1999, p.1). New technologies have simply given distance educators more options on how to supply distance learning to potential distance learners. Technology-Assisted Distance Education The technologies of distance education "have been evolving from traditional technologies such as mail, telephone, fax, to instructional television, to VCR-based technology, and computers systems such as the Internet (Zhang, 1998, p.2). "Internet-based distance courses are booming"(Zhang, 1998, p.2) "IP (Internet Protocol) is the way the ... ...ges. Hancock, Amy. (1999, March). The evolving terrain of distance learning. Satellite Communications, 23(3), 4 pages. Leonard, David C. (1999, Winter). The Web, the millenium, and the digital evolution of distance education. Technical Communication Quarterly, 8(1), 12 pages. Markel, Mike. (1999, April). Distance education and the myth of the new pedagogy. Journal of Business & Technical Communication, 13(2), 15 pages. Merisotis, Jamie P., & Phipps, Ronald A. What’s the difference? Change, 31(3), 6 pages. Sonner, Brenda S. (1999, Mar/Apr.). Success in the capstone business course—assessing the effectiveness of distance learning. Journal of Education for Business, 74(4), 5 pages. Zhang, Ping. (1998, Summer). A case study on technology use in distance learning. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 30(4), 22 pages.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Barristers and Solicitors

Explain the selection and appointment process of solicitors and barristers (14) Solicitors are ‘front line’ lawyers who have direct access to clients, providing a wide range of legal services. They are regarded as more accessible to the public than barristers. The number of solicitors has increased by 50% in the last 10 years. There are several stages in which a solicitor has to work through before qualifying. The first stage is the Academic stage. 55% of solicitors have a law degree. Those who have a degree in another subject can take a 1 year conversion course.Some solicitors qualify through the ILEX (Institute of Legal Executives) Once they have completed the academic stage, they must complete a professional course known as the LPC (Legal Practice Course). Here, students are taught general legal skills such as legal ethics, solicitor’s accounts, professional conduct and subject specialisms such as conveyancing, business law, family law and legal aid. Finally, a ll students, except ILEX students who have worked for a solicitors firm for at least 5 years, must complete a training contract.This is normally two years where the student is attached to a practicing solicitor, like an apprenticeship. However there is fierce competition for training contracts. Once completed, they are a qualified solicitor. Barristers are specialist legal advisors and court room advocates. They are independent and trained to advise clients on the strengths and weaknesses of their case. There are more stages to the training of a barrister to that of a solicitor. The first stage is also the Academic stage.Most barristers have a law degree, although they can also do a one year conversion course. It is necessary to belong to one of the Inns of Court in order to become a barrister. These are the Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln’s Inn and Gray’s Inn. When a trainee barrister joins one of the Inn’s they can be called ‘to the bar’ whic h is part of the procedure by which students become qualified barristers. The choice of Inns is personal and depends on which area of law you wish to specialise in.On completing the Academic stage, the students then progress onto the professional course for barristers called the Bar Professional Training Course (BPTC). Students study general skills as well as subjects such as civil litigation and remedies, criminal litigation and remedies etc. Next, the student is ‘called to the bar’ and undertakes the next stage of training called pupillage, which is the practical part in which the student must find an experienced barrister who they can shadow. Finally, the Barrister must then look for a tenancy, otherwise known as a ‘seat’ in Chambers from which he/she can work.To conclude, the selection and appointment process for solicitors and barristers are quite different although they both play an important role in the Criminal Justice System. Outline the difference s in the work the solicitors and barristers do Although both working within the Criminal Justice System, Solicitors and Barristers work very differently to each other. A solicitor is essentially a legal advisor who gives advice on common legal issues. There are currently over 60,000 licensed solicitors in the UK and they work closely with clients.Solicitors are responsible for drafting letters and researching minor cases. Solicitors work much more closely with clients and they are often expected to handle the smaller, less interesting cases. While most solicitors have a specialty, such as family or commercial law, it is not essential. A solicitor is rarely expected to appear in court, unless it is a relatively minor civil issue. They are mandatorily employed by law practice firms. The other type of lawyer in the UK is a barrister. Barristers are trial lawyers. They spend most of their time either in court or researching the law.There are far fewer barristers in the UK than there are solicitors. The position not only requires additional training, but also a talent for public speaking and presentation. Unlike solicitors, barristers do not work for a firm. Instead, they are self-employed, but they must give a portion of their pay for the use of chambers or offices that are provided by the court. To conclude, Solicitors and Barristers both work differently within the English Legal System, but it are important that they work together. For example, Solicitors must brief the Barristers on the facts so that the Barrister can prepare a case.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Human Elements In Administration Essay

People are the most important element in an organization whether it’s a business enterprise, a school, an army or hospital. School administrator and supervisors must be prepared to deal effectively with the people involved because they have the most difficulty in understanding and dealing with the human elements of administration. The administrator must understand certain fundamental concepts of motivation. He must have an insight into the nature of authority and influence. And most of all, he must have the ability to analyze specific problems and to carry out his intentions successfully. Technical skills, administrative skills and human skills are the three kinds of skills a successful administrator must possess. * Technical Skills – pertains to methods, techniques and processes. * Administrative Skills – ability to see the organization as an entity and the interrelationship of its various parts * Human Skills – refers to the ways of dealing effectively w ith people. 3 Distinct elements: *Skill in understanding the basic human forces active in the organization. *Skill in analyzing complex human situations. *Skill in implementing a plan of action. It is said that man is a wanting animal. As soon as one of his needs is satisfied, another appears in its place. Man’s needs are organized in a series of levels or a hierarchy of importance according to the theory of Maslow. Psychological needs – to be alive and to stay alive. Safety needs – to feel safe from accidents or pain, from competition or threat. of his behaviour. Ego needs – relate to one’s self – esteem and one’s reputation. Self – fulfilment needs – for continued self – development, for realizing one’s own potentialities. Understanding basic needs of an individual is important for the administrators and supervisors because deprivation of those needs has behavioural consequences on the part of one’s individual. It is also important to understand because of the fact that an individual whose lower level needs are satisfied, he is not any longer motivated to satisfy his psychological and safety needs. Rather, he shifts towards the satisfaction of the other needs in the hierarchy. Unless there are opportunities at work to satisfy these needs, the individual is deprived and his consent behaviour will reflect the deprivation. A New Theory of Management Proposition on the theory of new management’s task by McGregor harnessing human energy to organizational requirements are stated as follows: 1. Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise – money, materials, equipment and people – in the interest of economic needs 2 A process of directing peoples efforts, motivating, controlling their actions and modifying their behaviour to fit the needs of the organization 3. It is the responsibility of the management to recognize and develop the individual’s potential for development, his capacity for assuming responsibility, his readiness to direct behaviour toward organizational goals. 4. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation in order to achieved desired goals and objectives. New theory of management relies on self – control and self – direction; it treats people as a matured adults and it is management by objectives, Advantages 1. it does not involve the relinquishing of leadership, the abdication of management or the lowering of standards 2 it is a process of creating opportunities, encouraging growth, releasing potential, removing obstacles and providing guidance Some applications of the new theory: 1. Decentralization and Delegation – freeing people from too close control of conventional organization. 2. Job Enlargement – encourages the acceptance of responsibility at the bottom of the organization. 3. Participation and Consultative Management – people are encouraged to direct their own creative energies towards organizational objectives and giving them some voice in decisions. 4. Performance Appraisal – individuals are involved in in setting targets and objectives for himself and in a self – evaluation of performance semi – annually or annually. Close supervision tends to be associated with high productivity, general supervision with high productivity. The importance of supervising subordinates as a group are as follows: a.) discuss work problems with the group, b.) group performs well even when the supervisor is absent, c.) foster teamwork and group loyalty and d.) involves group participation in making decisions. THE ADMINISTRATOR OF SCHOOL FINANCING The welfare of the state depends largely upon the education of its citizens. Filipino people recognized the importance of sending children to school whenever and wherever possible. Our leaders and framers of Constitution see to it that the Magna Carta contains a provison that the state should establish and maintain a complete and adequate system of education and provide at least free primary for all education of school age. Since school population keeps on growing and the salaries of the teachers are keep on increasing, more and more funds are needed. However, present financial capability becomes inadequate and need to augment financial resources to keep up with increasing educational needs. In general, the sources for government income for education are the following: 1. Taxes imposed by law for the support of the government such as the real – property tax, specific tax, and import and export taxes. 2. Tuition fees imposed on students in public high schools, vocational schools, regional normal schools, and chartered colleges and universities. 3. Matriculation fees collected from public secondary school students, vocational schools, and chartered colleges and universities. There were also a matriculation fee charged in the intermediate grades but the fee was abolished by R. A. 4092 effective the school year 1964 – 1965. 4. Rental for lease of school sites and sales of schools products. 5. Land grants and donations. 6. Voluntary contributions. 7. Special fees such as miscellaneous fees charged from college students for entrance, registration, library, athletics, and laboratory, medical and dental clinics, school paper, diplomas, graduations and R.O.T.C. Support for Elementary Education The Educational Act of 1940 which nationalized the support of all elementary schools in municipalities and municipal districts saved the situation for the poor communities. The Educational Act of 1940 forbids the collection of tuition fees in the intermediate grades although it permits the matriculation fees in an amount to be determined by the President not exceeding two pesos for each pupil enrolled in the intermediate grades in municipalities and municipal district. The proceeds from this matriculation fee accrue to the fund of the National Government to purchase of library books and equipment and 40% for financing athletic activities in the intermediate grades. While the acquisition of school sites and construction of temporary school buildings remain the responsibility of the local governments. The law abolished the share of municipalities and municipal districts in the internal revenue collections, percentage taxes on the agricultural products and income tax. Support for Public Secondary Schools The financial support for the maintenance and operation of public secondary schools provided for by the provincial and city governments. Generally, the majority of provinces do not have adequate funds to support the schools properly. This deficiency in finances gives occasional difficulty in the payment of secondary teacher’s salary. The sources of provincial income are the following: 1. Internal revenue allotments from the national government. 2. Share from local taxes. 3. Fees from services rendered. 4. Income from miscellaneous receipts. Support for secondary schools 1. Tuition and matriculation fee levied by the Provincial Board on all high school students 2. Board uses parts of its general fund in case of shortage or the Board passes a resolution increasing the rate of tuition 3. Through the enactment of R. A. No. 3478, the National Government has been granting annual national aid to general provincial and municipal high schools beginning with the school year 1963 – 1964, primarily intended for salary adjustments of teachers and other secondary school personnel 4. Voluntary contributions and donations by private individuals and civic organizations Support of barrio experimental high school, the Bureau of Public Schools in its Memorandum No. 86, issued on August 1, 1966, states as follows: 1. The tuition fee to be charged should not be less than â‚ ±80.00 a year. 2. 50% of the 10% real estate tax proceeds allotted to barrios in accordance with the revised Barrio Charter should be set aside and used solely for the improvement of instruction in the barrio high schools. No amount accruing from this fund should be spent for salaries of teachers and other school personnel. 3. All feeder barrios should share the expenses for the improvement of instruction, the share of each to be proportionate to the number of students from the feeder barrios attending barrio high school. 4. All resolutions of the barrio councils regarding the funding of barrio high schools should be approved by the Municipal Council concerned. Support of Public Schools in Chartered Cities 1. Tuition fees and city funds   2. National Government allots lump sums as aid to cities for their educational needs. 3. National aid for salary adjustments of teachers and other secondary school personnel. The law was amended by R.A. No. 4128so as to include all city high schools except Manila and Quezon City. Support of Vocational Schools Vocational schools usually come under two categories – the provincial trade school and the provincial agricultural school. The source of income comes from the national contribution, tuition and other fees and income from school products. The so – called rural high schools which are agricultural in nature are jointly supported by the provinces and municipalities and the National Government. Support of Normal Schools Regional normal schools are also national like the vocational schools. There are still seven regional normal schools located in strategic places in the country serving the needs of the students in the surrounding places. Sources of income of these schools are national contribution and tuition fees. The city or municipality where they are located may also appropriate funds for the normal training department. Support of Special Schools The Philippine Nautical School located in Pasay is supported entirely by the National Government which offers courses for employment as merchant marine officers. The School for the Deaf and Blind under the Bureau of Public Schools is supported by the government with occasionally aid from the Philippine Charity Sweepstakes. Support of Chartered Government Colleges and Universities The support of chartered government institutions like University of the Philippines comes from the tuition and matriculation fees of students and comes from national funds appropriately annually by Congress. Special aids for the construction, repair and improvement of the buildings are given in special legislation or taken from the pork barrel fund. The tendency of the request by these institutions is to increase every year. Thus, the burden of the National Treasury for the support of these schools keeps on increasing. Other Agencies in helping the Financing of Public Schools A number of foreign agencies give some material aid to the schools aside from the National Government. Among these agencies are the following: * AID – NEC – provided in 1966 appropriations for buildings including the constructions of dormitories and also for typewriters, mimeographing machines and professional books for the Bureau of Public Schools. * UNICEF – gave aid in kind such as educational kits, globes, tape recorders, laboratory equipments and vehicles. * The American Foundation for Overseas Blind – donated Braille type writers, paper headsets, etc. * The Pilot Applied Nutrition Project (Bayaribang) – is a joint venture of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). These entities gave help in the form of technical services, training stipends, vehicles for supervision and various types of supplies and equipments for kitchen, laboratory and agricultural uses. * The Agency for International Development (AID), National Economic Council (NEC), and the Bureau of Public Schools (BPS) – jointly undertook a textbook production project which started on July 1, 1960 and terminated on June 30, 1965 to help solve the problem of lack of textbooks. The project was expected to print and distribute around 25 million of copies of textbooks within a 5-year period at an estimated cost about â‚ ±59.5 million. Support for Private Schools All private schools, colleges and universities derive their income mostly from tuition fees and miscellaneous fees from students. There is no law prescribing the maximum rate of tuition fees so there is no uniformity and limit in the tuition fees being charged by private schools. Quality schools with good standards among the religious institutions charge relatively higher rates than the ordinary schools. Some of the religious schools are partly supported from their properties. Some non-sectarian schools operating specially for profit charged comparatively lower tuition fees and even permit their students to pay on easy instalments to attract as many students as possible.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Accounts Receivable and Joan Miller

Sub: Finance Topic: Journal Entries Question: Posting Journal entries into a worksheet ClassOf1 provides expert guidance to College, Graduate, and High school students on homework and assignment problems in Math, Sciences, Finance, Marketing, Statistics, Economics, Engineering, and many other subjects. The following are the balances in the accounts for Joan Miller Advertising Agency as of January 31, 2001: Cash Accounts Receivable Fees Receivable Art Supplies Office Supplies Prepaid Rent Prepaid Insurance Art Equipment Accumulated Depreciation, Art eq. Office Equipment Accumulated Depreciation –Office Eq. Accounts Payable Unearned Art Fees Wages Payable Joan Miller, Capital Totals Debit Credit $1,720 2,800 200 1,300 600 400 440 4,200 $70 3,000 50 3,170 600 180 10,590 ______ ______ $14,660 14,660 During the month of February, the agency engaged in the following transactions: Feb. 1 Received an additional investment of cash from Joan Miller, $6,000 www. classof1. com *The Homewo rk solutions from ClassOf1 are intended to help the student understand the approach to solving the problem and not for submitting the same in lieu of your academic submissions for grades. Sub: FinanceTopic: Journal Entries Feb. 2 Purchased additional office equipment with cash, $800. Feb. 5 Received art equipment transferred to the business from Joan Miller, $1,400. Feb. 6 Purchased additional office supplies with cash, $80 Feb. 7 Purchased additional art supplies on credit from Taylor Supply Company, $500. Feb. 8 Completed the series of advertisements for Marsh Tire Company that began on January 31, and billed Marsh Tire Company for the total services performed, including the accrued revenues that had been recognized in January of $200 (see fees receivable). The total bill is $800.Feb. 9 Paid the secretary for two weeks’ wages, $600. Feb. 12 Paid the amount due to Morgan Equipment for the office equipment purchased last month $1,500 Feb. 13 Accepted an advance fee in cash fo r artwork to be done for another agency, $1,800. Feb. 14 Purchased a copier from Morgan Equipment for $2,100 paying $250 in cash and agreeing to pay he rest in equal payments over the next five months. Feb. 15 Performed advertising services and accepted a cash fee, $1,050. Feb. 16 Received payment on account from Ward Department Stores for services performed last month, $2,800 Feb. 9 Paid amount due for the telephone bill that was received and recorded at the end of January , $70. 20. Feb. 20 Performed advertising services for Ward Department Stores and agreed to accept payment next month $3,200. Feb. 21 Performed art services for a cash fee, $580 Feb. 22 Received and paid the utility bill for February, $110. Paid the secretary for two weeks’ wages, $600. www. classof1. com *The Homework solutions from ClassOf1 are intended to help the student understand the approach to solving the problem and not for submitting the same in lieu of your academic submissions for grades.Sub: Fi nance Topic: Journal Entries Feb. 26 Paid the rent for March in advance, $400. Feb. 27 Received the telephone bill for February, which is to be paid next month, $80. Feb. 28 Paid out cash to Joan Miller as a withdrawal for personal living expenses, $1,400. At the end of February, adjustments are made for the following: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. One month’s prepaid rent has expired. One month’s prepaid insurance has expired, $40. An inventory of art supplies reveals $720 of supplies are still on hand on February 28 th.An inventory of office supplies reveals $300 in office supplies have been used in February. Depreciation on the Art equipment for February is calculated to be $90. Depreciation on the Office equipment for February is calculated to be $100. Art services performed for which payment has been received in advance total, $1,400 Advertising services performed that will not be billed until March total $340. Three days’ worth of secretarial wages had accrue d by the end of February. Required: Prepare the general journal entries or enter into a worksheet the transactions completed in February, 2001Solution: Joan Miller Advertising Agency Worksheet Trial Balance Transactions 1/31/2001 Name of the Account Debit Cash $1,720 Accounts Receivable Fees Receivable Art Supplies Credit 2800 200 1300 February Debit $12,23 0 3400 Trial Balance 2/28/2001 (Unadjusted) Credit Debit $5,810 $8,140 2800 200 Credit $3,400 $0 $1,300 www. classof1. com *The Homework solutions from ClassOf1 are intended to help the student understand the approach to solving the problem and not for submitting the same in lieu of your academic submissions for grades.Sub: Finance Topic: Journal Entries Office Supplies Prepaid Rent Prepaid Insurance Art Equipment Accumulated Depreciation, Art Eq. Office Equipment Accumulated Depreciation, Office Eq. Accounts Payable Unearned Art Fees Wages Payable 600 400 440 4200 580 400 $70 3000 $70 4300 $7,300 50 3170 600 180 Joan Miller, Cap ital $50 1570 600 180 10590 Joan Miller, Withdrawals Fees Earned Wages Expense Utilities Expense Telephone Expense Total $1,180 $800 $440 $4,200 2430 1800 $4,030 $1,800 $0 $17,99 0 7400 1400 $1,400 5430 $14,66 0 $14,66 1020 110 80 $25,87 0 $25,87 0 $5,430 $1,020 $110 $80 $29,37 0 $29,37 0 ** End of the Solution ** ClassOf1 provides expert guidance to College, Graduate, and High school students on homework and assignment problems in Math, Sciences, Finance, Marketing, Statistics, Economics, Engineering, and many other subjects. www. classof1. com *The Homework solutions from ClassOf1 are intended to help the student understand the approach to solving the problem and not for submitting the same in lieu of your academic submissions for grades.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Concepts of Health Promotion Essay

Health is defined as a state in which human needs are met in an autonomic way, and is not limited to the absence of disease or disablement (V. Henderson). Optimal health is a lively, self-motivated equilibrium of physical, intellectual, spiritual, emotional, and social well-being. The concept of health promotion delineates the method of empowering people to increase control over, and to advance their own overall health. The main purpose of health promotion is to heighten people’s motivation to strive for optimal health, while assisting them in making lifestyle modifications that will help them advance their wellbeing to an ideal state. Modifications of the unfavorable way of living can be enabled through a combination of strategies and learning experiences that enhance awareness and rise motivation; most importantly, the change is made possible through the creation of opportunities that permit access to situations that make positive health practices an easy choice. Individuals and communities require a great deal of health education in order to achieve optimal health levels. The development of health promotion has allowed the nurse to reinforce the profession’s role on health promotion and disease prevention, propagate information that promotes an educated public, and assist individuals and communities to change established negative health behaviors. The nursing roles in health promotion vary greatly depending on the individual or group’s needs, and their level of readiness to take action toward lifestyle change and behavior modification. In order to be an efficient educator, the nurse has to perform a self-awareness assessment of own health beliefs and practices. In health promotion, it is of great importance that the educators live what they teach, hence becoming models of healthy lifestyle behaviors and attitudes. A nurse who will teach the importance of smoking cessation must not be a smoker; the reason is clear and obvious. Should the client learn that she smokes, he will lose confidence in her role of health advocate, and undervalue the importance of smoking cessation. The trust of the nurse-client relationship might be compromised, and the likelihood that the client will stop smoking will decrease significantly. An extensive approach of health promotion can be achieved through the nursing process including  assessment, diagnosis identification, planning, implementing, and evaluating outcomes. Even though the process is alike, the nurse gives emphasis to teaching the client accountability for self-care. After the client and the educator agree to the goals together, the health-promotion plans are established; thereafter, the client takes accountability for the success of the plans. A comprehensive assessment of the individual health status is fundamental to health promotion. The nurse has to take in consideration multiple factors, and collect significant data from the client’s milieu before beginning to design a plan of health promotion education. Some elements of assessment should include the health history and physical examination, physical fitness assessment, lifestyle assessment, spiritual assessment, social support systems review, health risk assessment, health beliefs review, and life-stressors review. Planning has to be done according to the needs, desires and priorities of the client. The client decides on health promotion goals, and the actions and interventions to achieve those goals. During the planning process the nurse acts as a resource person rather than as a counselor. The nurse provides information, highlighting the importance of gradual change, and appraises the client’s goals to ensure that they are realistic, quantifiable, and satisfactory to the client. Implementation is the â€Å"acting† towards behavior change. The nurse gives emphasis to self-responsibility for implementing the plan. Depending on the client’s needs, nursing interventions may consist of supporting, counseling, teaching, consulting, modeling, and enhancing the behavior change. The nurse has to offer ongoing and non-judgmental support that focuses on the desired behavior change. Moreover, the nurse will help the client identify his social support system, which is vital in the goal attainment process. Evaluation of the outcomes should not be sporadic, but rather done on a continual basis in shared collaboration of nurse and client. Evaluation is the time of celebrating successes, or a time when the client may choose to rearrange priorities, or adjust strategies. Health promotion aims a wide range of targets at different levels in the community. The huge benefits resulted from health promotion and disease prevention efforts make many realize that this domain of health care is  worth to be invested in. The focus is shifted evermore from the medical to the preventative approach, from treating the disease to avoiding the onset of it. Nurses have a fundamental role in health promotion by their position and interaction with the community. In acute care settings, they see the people at their toughest times of their lives. It is there nurses can assist patients make important informed decisions in regards to their health. The nurse has the role of assisting the patient in moving in the right direction on the health-illness continuum. Someone might argue that there is no more room for prevention once the illness occurred, but the truth is that there is always something to be prevented. For example, the patient who was admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis (without even knowing that he had diabetes) will need a lot of information and support on how to manage the disease and prevent complications. The nurse in the acute setting will begin the health promotion process for this patient, and furthermore refer him to diabetes specialists. Once the patient follows-up with them, the odds are that another nurse at the doctor’s office will continue the process of teaching the patient about the disease management. Disease prevention is included under health promotion umbrella, and consists of three levels of prevention: primary, secondary, and tertiary. The difference between them is determined by the specific point in time in the course of the disease progression when the health promotion is initiated. The primary prevention targets health promotion and protection before disease or dysfunction arise. It includes but it is not limited to immunizations, routine health check-ups, and risk assessments for specific diseases, family planning services and marriage counseling, health education on various threats to well-being. The main goal of primary prevention is to reduce the risk of exposure of the individual and the community to potentially harmful sources. In comparison, secondary prevention concentrates attention on a timely recognition of health issues and a rapid intervention to lessen health problems. Its main goals are to identify individuals in an initial stage of disease and to limit forthcoming disability. For example, a patient who experiences an acute heart attack can benefit from emergent cardiac stent placement. After this initial step of treatment, the patient will not only  need a continual adherence to the recommended regimen, but also making appropriate lifestyle changes in order to prevent further health problems linked to the initial cause of injury. Health promotion at the secondary level is very important because the patient who experienced a life-altering event may be able to return to prior level of quality of life, in conjunction with the appropriate lifestyle modifications. Some examples of secondary prevention are: teaching self-examination for breast and testicular cancer, yearly screening colonoscopy after 50 years of age, or yearly mammograms after the age of 40. At last, tertiary prevention places emphasis on restoration and rehabilitation with the goal of helping the individual to reinstate an optimal level of functioning. Chronic disease management is an example where tertiary prevention comes in to assist the client regaining control and quality of life to a certain extent, as permitted by the disease process. Education and support about managing chronic illness at home to prevent complications is part of the tertiary prevention. The levels of prevention can overlap in practice because same interventions can serve different causes. For example, if a person decides to follow the Weight Watchers nutrition plans to lose weight for the reason of increasing overall health and state of well-being, this will be primary level health promotion. On the other hand, if the same person decides to lose weight with the motivation to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease, then it is considered a behavior of secondary level of prevention. In conclusion, health promotion is a vital component in society because it helps its citizens reach to a qualitative life. Without health promotion and disease prevention programs, mortality and morbidity would always be our next door neighbor. By health promotion we can see more people laughing, dreaming, and enjoying the excitement of life. References Bennett, C., Perry, J., & Lawrence, Z. (2009). Promoting health in primary care. Nursing Standard, 23(47), 48-56. Blacksher, E. (2009). Health reform: what’s prevention got to do with it?. The Hastings Center Report, 39(6), inside. Marcus, S. (2012). Poison prevention: engineering in primary prevention. Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 50(3), 163-165. doi:10.3109/15563650.2012.658474 Kozier, B. (2007). Fundamentals of nursing: Concepts, process, and practice. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall Health.