Sunday, November 24, 2019

A Memory essays

A Memory essays Landscape is an important aspect of writing. Through this technique, the author can express symbolism using the character's surroundings. From the external landscape of a character, the internal landscape develops. There is a strong connection between the external and internal landscape of a character. In "A Memory" by Eudora Welty, the author uses external and internal landscape from her childhood memories to recreate a child hood fictional world. Through the small frames of her fingers, Eudora Welty begins her story looking at the landscape surrounding her. She beings by noticing the sun and how beautiful it is. This observation occurs when Eudora is not complaining about people or her surroundings, and the sun represents a peaceful time in her internally. With every observation of a person, she is obsessed with the concealment and the secrets that are within a person. This external landscape secretly comes from the inside, where she hides her thoughts. In her childhood, Eudora Welty hid the love she had for a boy in her school. Internally, she was obsessed with the slightest touch of the boy. The author did not show this feeling on the outside, and he never knew her love for him. Possibly this emotion was not even love, but instead a longing for attention from the boy. Although she never got attention physically or emotionally from the boy, her thoughts about him gave her a meaning in life. This love, or whatever it was, that Eudora Welty once had is something she is trying to find in each person that she judges. She imagined a horrible external landscape for this boy. For example, she thought about his house catching on fire, or his parents becoming crippled. These thoughts indicated that internally she knew that boy was not perfect, and that she would never know everything about him or receive the boy's attention as she had wished. As Welty wonders with her thoughts, she brings bathers into her story. She describes ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Advances in Biomedicine and the Possibility of the Manipulation of Assignment

Advances in Biomedicine and the Possibility of the Manipulation of Human Existence - Assignment Example Furthermore, this means that health-related matters are routinely objectified as technical problems to be solved through the application of technology and the conduct of science and are therefore decontextualized into practice (Lock & Nguyen 2). It is apparent that the innovations in biomedical technology bring forth benefits that could aid in the improvement of the health and the life of human beings; however, it is a fact that human existence and life itself is threatened by the increased risk and probability of technological intervention and manipulation. Others may term it as the science of â€Å"playing god†. This paper deems to explore the implications of Biomedical Technology as guided by the work of Ray Kurzweil entitled, The Singularity is near: when Humans Transcend Biology and the Message of Pope John Paul II to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on Evolution highlighting that Truth Cannot Contradict Truth. The Singularity is near in the lieu of the Message to the P ontifical Academy of Sciences Evolution has been an interesting subject matter in the field of science particularly Biomedical Technology. Kurzweil envisioned in his work entitled, The Singularity is near: when Humans Transcend Biology, a new evolutionary process that aims to integrate man and machine (1-652). It is highlighted that the knowledge and skills entrenched in our brains will be merged with the immeasurably superior capacity, speed and knowledge-sharing capability of human innovations (Kurzweil 1-652). The age of the Internet was also predicted in the aforementioned work; he even mentioned that technological innovations have emerged at accelerating rates in recent years, while information technology capabilities such as cost performance, speed, capacity and bandwidth grow at exponential rates faster than the forecast of Moore’s Law (Kurzweil 1-652). It is obvious that one of the principal goals of brain science is to produce an artificial brain. This was very contr oversial for many groups advocating human ethics. The author of this paper believes that such innovation could lead to tremendous and a variety of debates. It may be deemed that this is such advancement on the part of science but nonetheless, the values imbibed in the nature of human beings must be taken into consideration. It is necessary for people to give due respect to what the Divine Providence has created and provided. As what Pope John Paul II stressed in his message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences on evolution that truth cannot contradict truth (Pope John Paul II). Conversely, it was mentioned by Pope John Paul II that the reflection on science of the third millennium commenced with the identification of the principal problems brought about by science and which affect humanity’s future though the solutions to such predicaments were also pointed out which will be beneficial to the whole human community in the aspects of life and health (Pope John Paul II). For ex ample, in the book entitled, Stem Cell Wars: inside stories from the Frontlines written by Herold and Daley (1-256) which tackled fascinating stories of stem cell research and its benefits on mankind. It divulged how stem cell research had benefited humans in terms of developing cures to certain diseases such as muscular dystrophy (Herold and Daley 1-256). In another book entitled, The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution in Personalized Medicine written by Collins (1-368) that explores the possibility of completing the interpretation of the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Chapter 14 discussion question Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Chapter 14 discussion question - Essay Example One of the goals of all managers is to maximize shareholder’s wealth. The community that lost those jobs will perceive the CEO to be an immoral and unethical person that has no sense of patriotism. The made in America label has a lot of value in the United States consumer markets. 2. There are hundreds of examples of ethical and unethical behavior in the business world. A case of an unethical act that occurred over a decade ago is the Nike Corporation sweetshop scandal. Nike Corporation is one of the leading apparels and shoe manufacturers in the world. Back in the 1990s Nike expanded its operation into several developing countries. The reason the firm choose these locations was to save in labor and operating costs. The company lost control and a managerial staff composed of immoral leaders created sweetshops at these locations. A sweetshop is a shop or factory in which employees work long hours for low pay in an unsafe working environment (Merriam-webster, 2011). An example o f a company that is using high ethical standards in its operating decisions is Starbucks Cafe. Starbucks Cafe sources its coffee using a practice known as fair trade coffee. Fair trade coffee guarantees poor farmers a price of $1.26 per pound of coffee which is twice the going rate for that product. 3. Unethical behavior can occur for a leader that has proper values and intentions. The reason that this can occur is that ethics is relative to the person or group that analyzes an act. A simple way to visualize ethics in the corporate world is through the stakeholder perspective. Each stakeholder group is going to react differently to an action. A leader may have great intentions and proper values, but sometimes budgetary constraints force the hand of a leader. If a leader closes down an operation knowing that the community needs those jobs the person despite wanting to help was force to make a decision that will be viewed as unethical by the community. 4. The glass ceiling effect that limits the managerial opportunities for women occurs for a variety of reasons. Our society believes the positions of power are better handled by men. In the United States there has never been a woman president. In the past there were more men in the workforce than women. The current trend is for more women to continue to enter the labor force. As of 2004 women represented 46% of the US labor force (Dol, 2004). Another social stigma that has helped men get better paying jobs is the belief that the man is supposed to be the provider of the household. It is also possible also that man visualize women as a threat to the corporate power structure which has historically been dominated by men. 5. In order to level the playing so that women can have better job opportunities including managerial spots at the executive level companies have to change from within. The corporate culture of companies has to change. The executive managerial staff has to implement strategic diversity plans. To tar get the problem of the lack of women in corporate management firms could create managerial training programs that utilized quotas to ensure enough women are getting a chance. Based on the fact that 46% of the labor force is composed of women a fair quota would be a 54:46 split. The use of quotas will also ensure that ethnic minorities are properly represented in the managerial ranks. Our educational system has to do a better job at recruiting women

Monday, November 18, 2019

Commercially Available Firewalls Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Commercially Available Firewalls - Essay Example Application-Layer Firewall, is the type of firewall that can address the vulnerabilities faced by NBK bank, since once the Application-Layer Firewall is installed, it will safeguard the bank’s data, since this type of firewall prevent all unwanted outside traffic from reaching protected machines (Venkatesulu & Kumar, 2012). This type of firewall works towards monitoring all browser traffic, or all telnet traffic, and intercepts or blocks the packets that do not match the set data traffic rules, since they are considered to be intrusive (Venkatesulu & Kumar, 2012). To enhance the effective operation of the firewall once it is installed, fellow workers are supposed to understand that firewall does not protect the computers from all sort of harm, and thus should observe the following set of procedures: Avoid the use of any unauthorized connections such as Modems or wireless connection, since firewall does not protect against traffic or software that does not come through it (Venkatesulu & Kumar).

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Increasing Trend In Marriage Halls

The Increasing Trend In Marriage Halls The increasing trend in marriage halls over the years mainly from 2007-2012 is contributed by a number of reasons. The main aim of this thesis is to find out the reasons to the rising trend in marriage halls from 2007-2012 and to gather in depth knowledge of the marriage halls business and industry in Lahore Pakistan. The areas of research are Gulberg and Garden Town Lahore. Marriage is a basic necessary process every human being passes through during their life time. It not only is necessary but a social custom as it is a religious practice that every individual is likely to follow. Marriage halls aim at organizing marriage and wedding functions providing all the services for the convenience of the people under one roof. Marriage halls provide all services including food, cutlery, sitting arrangements, decor, music system, safety, security and parking. The mission of a marriage hall is to sustain customers and increase repeat clientele as there is high competition in the marriage hall industry. Marriage halls aims at providing customers with the best quality and best arrangements in arranging their marriage function and allowing them to be satisfied as much as possible. Marriage halls business has been a glooming business in the past couple of years and has proven to be profitable. There are 20 marriage halls located in Gulberg and Garden Town both registered and un-registered. As a result with the changes in the government regulations, awareness of customers and economical changes in the economy of Pakistan has affected the industry tremendously and has also given way to increase in competition by introducing outdoor catering services, marquees and other catering service providers to meet customer needs. In this paper I will be discussing the trend of marriage halls from 2007-2012 and the reasons as to why they have increased or decreased supported by facts and figures and using both qualitative and quantitative data. I will be focusing on only Gulberg and Garden Town area in Lahore as my target market and sample size. 1.1 Background Increase in the number of marriage halls and the increasing trend over the years have increased in all over Pakistan from 2001-2012. Pakistan having a large population allows a large number of people getting married every now and then. The marriage halls business is increasing day by day and therefore it is of my interest to find out the reasons to the increasing number of marriage halls in Lahore from year 2007-2012. The increase in the number of marriage halls is due to the convenience it provides to the hosts and allows package budgeting and are easily available according to the requirement. Indoor marriage halls provide protection against bad weather conditions and also allow more traditional outlook for marriages the ambiance, the decor as compared to the outdoor marriage events. According to the Punjab Government laws the halls have to be closed by 10pm rather than events held outside. The owners of marriage halls are more pressure and tension to shut down by 10pm if not they are penalized but in case of outdoor marriage events the organizer and host are in less pressure and tension as they have more time to vacating the area. The marriage hall industry is the only industry booming in the past 5 years as it requires converting residential area to commercial marriage halls. I am motivated to research on the rising trend of marriage halls as this research has not been done previously as it requires first hand information. Therefore it allows me to conduct different research methods to find out the increase in the number of marriage halls. The purpose of this research is to gain all the knowledge about the industry and to have in depth knowledge of the industry. 1.2 Industry Overview Marriage halls industry has been glooming in Pakistan from 2007-2012. A rising trend is seen in the increase of number of marriage halls in Pakistan. Investors foresee it as a profitable investment irrespective of the economical challenges, fluctuations in the prices and changing policies of the government. The changes in the government policies have affected the overall industry in Pakistan; therefore investors have made big investments in marriage halls business. Marriage halls are and have been facing different challenges that affect the business including the rules and regulations of wrapping up the function by 10pm, allowing a one-dish policy in food which as a result squeezes the profit margins for the investors but allows them to earn profits. The high rate of inflation strongly contributes to the increase in the number of marriage halls as the purchasing power of customers have reduced and they prefer to arrange their functions as economically as possible. The challenge of load shedding is another major problem faced by the marriage halls which as a result has increased their expenses and decreased their profits. The overall industry in Pakistan has been facing a business slum by the changes in the government frequently over the years with fluctuations of prices therefore marriage halls have been a safe resort for investors to invest and earn profits. As marriage is a necessary process every individual goes through investors foresee marriage halls business as a profitable business in spite of the challenges being faced by them. Recently from 2010, the competition for marriage halls has been increased by different competitors including marquees and outdoor catering which has increased competition for marriage halls to compete with. Though the target market for marriage halls is particularly the upper-middle, middle-middle and lower-middle class therefore it allows marriage halls business to sustain the business as the middle class income group is high in Pakistan. 1.3 SWOT Analysis Strengths Security Marriage halls provide security to the customers as compared to the other competitors. They provide security in situations of danger, fire and secure the properties of the guests in the function. Economical Prices Marriage halls target the middle class and therefore allow middle class income groups to arrange their function with the best facilities in the most economical prices possible. Due to the high inflation rate in Pakistan marriage halls are booming as the purchasing power of consumers have decreased and marriage halls provide the best economical prices to arrange function compares to competitors. Weaknesses Customization A major weakness of marriage halls is that they provide standard format to arrange marriage functions and lack in providing customization the customers according to their needs. Capacity Marriage halls do not have enough capacity to accommodate people more then 500-700. Whereas marquees can accommodate large number of people from 700-1000 number of guests. Opportunities Increase usage and capacity Marriage halls have an opportunity to increase their usage by conducting other functions including seminars, exams, business meetings, lunches to increase their revenue. Marriage halls also have an opportunity to increase their capacity by building halls to accommodate more people. Threats Government Regulations Government regulations pose a serious threat to marriage halls as they can only offer one dish to be served in the main course and the time restrictions that the functions have to be wrapped up by 10pm. The government regulations are a limitation for marriage halls to earn more profit and to offer customers more satisfaction. Increasing Competition The increasing competition in the industry is also a serious threat that the marriage halls have to face a number of challenges and meet different ways of conducting business. 1.4. Research Objectives:- To find out the percentage increase of the marriage halls from 2007-2012 in Lahore. To find out the number of marriage halls in Gulberg and Garden Town Lahore from 2007-2012. To find out the reasons as to why the trend has increased in marriage halls over the years. To conduct primary research and gain knowledge on marriage halls business in Pakistan. To find out the prospects of marriage halls in Lahore Pakistan. To compare the trend of rise in marriage halls in Pakistan with India and China. 2 Theory 2.1 Literature Review:- Marriages take place in every society, community and country. A number of reasons have been highlighted over the years as to the rise of marriage halls. Wedding expenses have increased by 20 to 30 percent this season and are likely to increase in the coming months. Catering and poultry prices are high and wedding hall rates have been raised considerably. This has added to the consumers financial burden but traders in wedding-related businesses are making the best of it. Wedding halls in Gulberg, Garden Town, Johar Town and Faisal Town have increased their rates and blamed the move on inflation.2Inflation plays an important role in decreasing purchasing power of consumers to spend on wedding activities. Increase in prices has increased expenses and therefore there has been a 30 percent increase in the prices of wedding expenses and wedding halls rates. Due to the high inflation rate consumers find places with economical prices to arrange their functions. Marriage halls therefore provide the only means to arrange a wedding function economically that can be easily afforded by the consumers targeting the middle income groups. The trend of conducting marriage ceremonies at banquet halls has decreased in the city in recent days, as people are scared to leave their houses in the prevailing security situation, owners of various banquet halls told Daily Times on Saturday. In addition to a reduction in the total number of reservations, the numbers of guests attending weddings has also decreased, they said, adding this was very bad for business. They said their business was already under tremendous pressure due to rising prices and limited budgets and the recent wave of terror attacks had only added fuel to the decline. Inflation has squeezed the purchasing power of the people, said Mahboob Ahmed, the owner of a private marriage hall.3 In 2009 with the increase of terrorism in the country marriage hall business has been affected tremendously. People instead arranging their functions outdoor or in marriage halls preferred to stay at home and arrange it at their home. Lack of security caused a lot of people to think whether to arrange wedding functions in house or in marriage halls. Terrorism along with inflation posed a serious threat to the marriage halls and increased intense amount of security concerns in order to survive their business. The industry in 2009 faced a number of challenges allowing the business slope to move downwards effecting marriage halls adversely. The LDA concerned is responsible for providing basic facilities to residents, but it seems that the authority has adopted a liberal policy for issuance of NOCs for conversion of residential plots into commercial plots. It is because of this liberal policy businessmen take advantage and are building marriage halls without considering the prerequisites of the by-laws. The residents are suffering from this mushroom growth of marriage halls which are more than from any other scheme in Lahore. 5 The liberal policy of LDA to issue NOC to the marriage halls in one of the major reasons in the rise of marriage halls in the past couple of years. Lahore Development Authority has been converting residential plots into commercial areas providing businessmen to invest in opening marriage halls and serve as a source of generating revenue for the government as well as the marriage hall owners. Marriage halls surrounded everywhere in the residential area cause inconvenience to the residents causing traffic jams and noise disturbance to the residents living in the surroundings. By issuing NOC creates a high opportunity for businessman to open marriage halls and earn revenue more easily as compared to other industry in Pakistan District Coordination Officer (DCO) Noorul Amin Mengal has warned the owners of marriage halls and said they should be closed on the given time and in case of negligence they would have to face consequences as per law. Chairing a meeting at Town Hall on Wednesday, the DCO said in future no case would be lodged against bride and groom and their relatives while the entire responsibility of late closing of marriage halls would be on the shoulder of halls owners and case would be registered against them.6 Government regulations have immensely affected the running of marriage halls business. All marriage halls are strictly advised to adhere to wrapping up of a wedding by 10pm. In providing food items government has also limited the availability of food items to one-dish only which effects the marriage halls reducing their profits. The DCO stated to charge fines to any marriage hall violating the law and the fine solely being paid by the marriage hall owners. Government regulations have limited the profits of marriage halls but on the other hand the government regulations have been made in the favor of the public security and protection. Therefore these laws allow marriage halls to be profitable as the customers pay the full price of a function allowing marriage halls to provide less and earn more money per head. As Pakistani society has grown more overtly conservative, weddings remain one of the few culturally acceptable venues for men and women to meet without restriction and even dance with each other. In other words, a mehndi is simply a substitute for a nightclub. The phrases used to justify the extravagance ranged from people will talk if you dont have an elaborate wedding, to I just want a traditional wedding and there is social capital being built at weddings.7Marriages in Pakistan from the very start have been a source of entertainment and over the years the ritual has become more of a status symbol of having a prestigious marriage. People in Pakistan spend big amount of money on marriages and is known to be one of the biggest expenses in lifetime for every family in Pakistan. Marriages in Pakistan are costly due to the different events taking place in a marriage including dholki, mehndi, barat and walima. Pakistan facing severe economic challenges the higher spending on wedding functions has not declined as marriages in Pakistan is known to be a big event and spending more money is a status symbol to have a status in the society. But Indias burgeoning middle class now 300 million strong are turning weddings into showcases of their growing disposable incomes and newfound appetites for the goodies of the global marketplace. The largesse has spawned an $11 billion wedding industry, growing at 25 percent annually and beginning to rival the US industry valued at $50 billion. Top global luxury brands and local entrepreneurs are learning that the way into the pocketbooks of Indias new consumers is through their nuptials. 8India has a big wedding industry which is overcoming the US industry. Indian weddings are now a show of wealth in the society and wedding service providers are earning large amounts of money by customizing services. The Indian wedding industry is growing with 25% annually which is more than the growth of the US industry. India is an emerging country with people witnessing rise in disposable income. Increasing disposable income renders people to mark this grand event with luxurious celebrations. Wedding at exotic locations, far from the maddening crowd of the city has become a rage and is considered to be a significant driver. Destination weddings continue to increase as it allows the wedding to be unique. In this format of the event, a planner becomes imperative due to the lack of knowledge of the place at which the wedding will take place as well as towards streamlining the entire process. An Indian wedding needs a lot of time and effort towards planning and implementation.9 India has a big wedding industry growing with a high rate every year. Different factors contribute to the increase in the spending on the marriages in India as well as the number of marriages taking place every year. Weddings for higher class in India are an opportunity to show their wealth, for middle class it is an event for which they have to go beyond limits to make it luxurious and for the lower class it is as simple as a normal event. Spending on luxurious locations, places, have given way to wedding planners as wedding in India require a lot of time to plan. Demographic Profile, In 2011, India had a population of 1.21 billion, and with average family size of five members, there are around 242 million families in India. Considering one marriage per family every 20 years, on average India has around 10 million marriages per year. Also,the estimated median age in India as of 2011 in 26.2 years, signifying a large proportion of population in marriage age group.10 India has a large population of 1.21 billion with average families accounting around 242 families. Almost 10 million marriages take place every year in India with the increasing population the number of marriage increases proportionally. In 2011, it was seen that majority of Indias population lies with the marriage age bracket. Availability of wedding loan and wedding insurance, Many banks and financial institutions have started lending marriages loan to ensure hassle free wedding experience. Also, increase in disposable income has encouraged newlywed to opt for wedding loan and make wedding a grand event. This attitude to make the wedding event grand increases the total wedding cost. With high financial stakes, the couples or their families opt to buy marriage insurance that take care of contingencies during marriage like cancellation/ postponement due to fire or natural disaster, accident of bride groom or burglary.11 Another important factor contributing to the increase in the number of weddings and increase on wedding expenditures is the accessibility of marriage loans and insurance provided by the Indian government. Now its easier for people to spend more as they have access to loans and can pay off later. These all facilities provided by the Indian government are provided to enhance the wedding industry in India and to strengthen it. Wedding Insurance is also popular among people as due to natural disasters during wedding functions people have an option of being compensated by the insurance companies in case of different problems including natural disaster. Official figures suggest that 10 million people wed annually and that the industry as whole turns over more than 250 billion yuan (US$30.2 billion) each year. Big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou have established well developed wedding celebration markets. Beijing, for example, leads the country with 1,000 wedding related firms. About 50,000 couples get married each year in the capital, a diamond mine for the wedding businesses.12 China wedding industry is rising with an increasing number of marriages taking place each year. The main cities of China including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou contribute to the higher revenues generated from weddings on a larger scale. All cities in China have related business to the wedding business which help generate higher profits and develop its wedding industry. While parents use weddings to cement their status and display their wealth, the bridal couple are experimenting with ways to personalize the experience, drawing not only from the U.S. but also from South Korea and Japan, and usually involving vast sums of money. Whereas Chinese weddings used to be about a dinner banquet and honoring parents, todays weddings feature more exotic fare like fire-dancing, elaborate video presentations and motorcades of luxury cars with nameplates like Bentley, Lamborghini and Ferrari.13 Wedding in old times were entirely different from what they are now in the 21st century. People now focus more on showing of their wealth and status by having a lavish wedding of their children and is more considered as a symbol of honour. Chinese weddings are now arranged more exotically with having large amount of budgets for each step in a wedding arrangement from wedding planners to make up to photography and honeymoon. People in china display their status in a wedding by the prestigious cars they have and the different presentations of showing of their wealth in the society. Excess is in order in all departments of the Indian wedding industry, estimated to be a staggering US$ 25.5 billion (Rs.1,42,596 crore) the economy of a small country and growing at the explosive rate of 20 to 25 per cent a year. The speed of economic growth in India, which is responsible for the creation of overnight fortunes, is also creating a conspicuous, yet almost desperate type of consumption at weddings. The average budget for an Indian wedding ceremony in the middle class is estimated to be US$ 34,000 (around Rs.19.01 lakh). The upper-middle and rich classes are estimated to spend upward of US$ 1 million (Rs.5.59 crore). This doesnt include cash and valuables given as part of a dowry. Companies like GE Money India have introduced an auspicious personal loan, exclusively for weddings. Giant malls like the Wedding Souk in Pitampura, Delhi, spread over one acre and with over 100 shops dedicated to weddings, have emerged14 Indian wedding industry is rising day by day and the Indian government provides loans to provide access to cash for weddings. The average wedding costs around 6 crore. People in India spend large amount of money on weddings therefore wedding in a flourishing business in India and contributes a large chunk to the growing economy. Marriage rates have tumbled over the past few decades, falling from about 10 marriages per 1,000 people in the mid-1980s to 6.8 marriages in 2009. This decline is a result of social influences (fewer couples looking to commit) and attitudinal changes, as consumers hold off for financial and lifestyle reasons. However, the fall in the marriage rate has not resulted in a complete disaster for the industry. In fact, the decline has led to a higher-than-average wedding spend, meaning even greater profits for those involved Coming off of 2005 and 2006, two of the most prosperous years in the wedding industry, the sector plummeted as the economy entered recession. Revenues fell from a high of $67.5 billion in 2005 to $42.9 billion in 2009. Industry performance is expected to improve in 2010, expanding an estimated 10% to $47.2 billion, but still far below the years, so businesses need to put in place appropriate strategies to capture that increasing demand.15 As mentioned above the decline in marriage rate in China has led to increase in spending and earn higher profits. The decline is mainly caused by social influence on people, lack of commitment and difference in lifestyles. The decline has not caused damaged but allows the Chinese government to implement strategies that help to capture the increasing demand and develop wedding related business to enhance the industry and provide more services in order to generate more revenues from the wedding industry. 2.2. Competitor Analysis The competitor analysis focuses on two main competitors including Marquees and Outdoor Catering services that cause a serious threat to the marriage halls. Over the past few years the competition in the industry has increased by the increasing awareness among the consumers and consumer needs and wants. Consumers now like everything their way which imposes a pressure on the service providers to be more efficient and provide customized services to cater to their needs. 2.2.1. Marquees Marquee is a tent used for outdoor functions. Different investors have introduced a new concept of marquee which is basically taken from Saudia Arabia Hajj performance in Mina where there are small marquees for people to reside in for 5 days as a necessary process to perform Hajj. The concept has been introduced in Pakistan to arrange marriage and other functions in the outdoor. This has increased the competition for marriage halls as marquees allow customized services meeting the consumer needs and wants and providing value added facilities that include changing the theme of the set, colors, lighting, sitting arrangements to customize the marriage function to the consumer needs. Though marquees lack in providing few facilities including no kitchen, re-heating food facilities and as everything in a marquee is outsourced by other service providers they cause a threat to the quality of food and food diseases as to being stored for longer hours before it is served. Marquees pose a serious threat to the marriage halls indoor services as consumers are more aware and require more customized services and facilities then the traditional marriages concept in the marriage halls. 2.2.2. Outdoor Catering Services Outdoor catering services are an emerging business that has been posing a serious threat to the marriage halls from past many years. The Pioneers of the outdoor catering services are Nadeem Caterers, Hanif Rajput, Zafar Caterers, Dynasty and many other that have changed the way marriage take place now. They provide a complete package from providing a tent to the food, sitting arrangements, generators, lights, music system and all other facilities according to the customer requirements leaving them satisfied. Outdoor caterers pose a threat to marriage halls as it allows consumers to arrange the function with outsourcing different materials from different people and arranging their function according to their needs and budget. 2.3 Comparative Analysis 2.3.1. Industry Overview of Marriage Halls in India India being rich in its culture, history rituals and customs in all aspects surpasses all countries and is known to have the best lavish wedding ceremonies all over the world. All industries in India have been affected tremendously with the financial slum being faced by India, but somehow the marriage hall industry has been able to survive and people spend more money on marriages and perceive to have a life time experience spending as much as they can. The demand for weddings in India has increased and the numbers show that weddings have increased every year. The Wedding season in India takes place in October and all the marriage halls in New Delhi are booked a month before. Indias wedding industry is flourishing as not just the halls but the wedding planners, designers, jewellers, beauty parlours now cash on the wedding season by providing different ways of organizing weddings. Weddings in India are more taken as a an event t spend large amount not by the upper class but the middle class to project their wealth having a status symbol. Wedding Planners in India provide all services from marriage halls to arranging the whole event within the consumers budget making it a customized service for people to pay high fees. People are now more aware of the changing trends in arranging marriages they do not want a simple five-star hotel wedding but a customized wedding. With the increase in purchasing power of the consumers in India people now have more income and spend more on weddings. Indias wedding industry is growing faster and bigger day by day, with people trying to overdo each other as to whose wedding arrangement is better. According to experts its been stated that a single wedding now normally takes 1.5 crore without jewellery. Indias wedding business is flourishing as now new designers are capitalizing on the opportunities in India. Indias wedding business is the best business to invest as it has large profit margins and because of people increased income, and increase in purchasing power they spend more on weddings allowing wedding related services to earn more. Fewer auspicious days, as marriages are arranged only on auspicious days as Hindus place a lot of emphasis on astrology, the industry faces seasonal revenue. In case of unfavourable planetary combination as per astrology marriages are postponed. This act as a barrier for the growth of wedding planner. Furthermore as large number of marriages across country takes place on few selected dates this give rise to the possibility that wedding planner may not be able to capture additional market share.22Marriages in India take place seasonally as majority of the Hindus believe in astrology. This restricts wedding planners on capturing the market share apart from the seasonal dates. This is a restriction for the wedding planners to earn high revenues and is a challenged faced by them. 2.3.2. Industry Overview of Marriage Halls in China Chinese wedding industry has been glooming from past 5 years with a rise in number of marriages each year. The increase in the spending on weddings in China is attributed mainly because of economic, increase in disposable income and cultural change. Wedding expenditures have increased mainly in the urban areas of China accounting to 70% wedding day expenses. The cultural change has a strong impact on the increase on the wedding expenses due to the different government policies including one child policy. Parents want to spend large amounts of money of their childs wedding as they just have one child and desire to have a dream wedding for their child. Other factors contributing to the increase in the wedding expenses is the traditional arrangements and economic factors. Having a new house, household accessories after wedding has become a necessity as before wedding children live with parents and after marriage live separately. The spending habit of chinese people and the increase in disposable income increase the spending on weddings. 30% of savings are spend on weddings of every person in China. With the rise in the number of marriages each year and the increase in wedding expenditures businesses in China have taken it as an advantage and strengthened the wedding industry by providing specialized wedding services and increasing revenue. 2.4 Research Question Rising trend in marriage halls in Gulberg and Garden Town from 2007-2012 in Lahore Pakistan 3 Methodology:- The methodology I will be using to research and analyze the rising trend in marriage halls in Pakistan is by conducting Interviews Survey Study Questionnaires Examination of Secondary Data To gain in depth knowledge of the marriage halls in Lahore I conducted a survey study following the steps mentioned by Campbell and Katrina (1953) in the book Essentials of research design and methodology. Campbell and Katona (1953) delineated nine general steps for conducting a survey. Although this list is more than 50 years old, it is as useful now as it was then in providing a clear overview of survey procedures. The nine steps are as follows: 1. General objectives: This step involves de ¬Ã‚ ning the general purpose and goal of the survey. 2. Speci ¬Ã‚ c objectives: This step involves developing more speci ¬Ã‚ city regarding the types of data that will be collected, and specifying the hypothesis to be tested. 3. Sample: The major foci of this step are to determine the speci ¬Ã‚ c population that will be surveyed, to decide on an appropriate sample, and to determine the criteria that will be use

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Essay --

In 1199 Richard died, and John claimed the throne of England. He was accepted by Normandy, and his mother secured Aquitaine, but his claim to the rest was in trouble. He had to fight and negotiate and he was challenged by his nephew Arthur. In concluding peace, Arthur kept Brittany (held from John), while John held his lands from the King of France, who was recognised as John’s overlord on the continent, in a manner greater than was ever forced out of John’s father. This would have a crucial impact later in the reign. However, historians who have cast a careful eye over John’s early reign have identified a crisis had already begun: many nobles distrusted John because of his previous actions, and doubted whether he would treat them correctly. The marriage to Isabella of Gloucester was dissolved because of alleged consanguinity, and John looked for a new bride. He found one in the form of another Isabella, heiress to Angoulà ªme, and he married her as he tried to involve himself in the machinations of the Angoulà ªme and Lusignan family. Unfortunately Isabella had been engaged to Hugh IX de Lusignan and the result was a rebellion by Hugh and the involvement of French King Philip II. Had Hugh married Isabella, he would have commanded a powerful region and threatened John’s power in Aquitaine, so the break benefitted John. But, while marrying Isabella was a provocation to Hugh, John continued to snub and anger the man, pushing his rebellion. In his position as French King, Philip ordered John to his court as he could any other noble who held lands from him, but John refused. Philip then revoked John’s lands and a war began, but this was more a move to strengthen the French crown than any vote of faith in Hugh. John began by capturing a ma... ...ution. These talks took place at Runnymede, and on June 15 1215 agreement was made on the Articles of the Barons. Later known as Magna Carta, this became one of the pivotal documents in English, and to some extents western, history. In the short term, Magna Carta lasted just three months before the war between John and the rebels continued. Innocent III supported John, who struck back hard at the baron’s lands, but he rejected a chance to attack London and instead wasted the north. This allowed time for the rebels to appeal to Prince Louis of France, for him to gather an army, and for a successful landing to take place. As John retreated north again rather than fight Louis he fell ill and died. This proved a blessing for England as the regency of John’s son Henry were able to reissue Magna Carta, thus splitting the rebels into two camps, and Louis was soon ejected.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Starbucks Case

As a result, Cataracts consistently appears on â€Å"Best Places to Work† lists, and Schultz continues to be recognized for leadership by organizations such as the Deciphers Institute, Fortune, and Glissando (â€Å"Cataracts and Howard,† 2014). Schultz also appears on Fortunes first list Of the Android's 50 Greatest Leaders† as number 29 (Cataracts News). Although critics may believe that Schultz success is a result of mere luck and situational factors, several leadership theories explain why Schultz and Cataracts continue to be successful.The most important of these theories include trait theory and transformational leadership theory, which Schultz illustrates with many of his leadership traits, skills, and beliefs. Situational factors contributed to the initial success of Cataracts, but Schultz leadership abilities, ethics, and passion are what make Cataracts a driving force in the food and beverage industry today. Schultz exemplifies dynamic leadership skills b y his ability to push Cataracts forward without losing integrity.Although Schultz led Cataracts to be the successful company that it is today, he stepped down from his position in 2000. However, the company experienced several problems in 2008 because of an unstable economy and a series of poor management decisions. Schultz then felt compelled to return to the company. When Schultz returned, he found that â€Å"things were worse than [he'd] thought† (Igniting, 2010). The Cataracts leadership team admitted to failing the company's employees and heir families, and Schultz had to make several difficult decisions to restore the company.In addition to the crises in management, the financial crisis of the economy added stress on the Cataracts leadership team. Customers began to rethink spending four dollars on a latte, and eventually competition set in as other businesses saw Cataracts turning a profit from selling coffee. The overwhelming amount of problems challenged Schultz goal of preserving and improving the integrity of the company and its â€Å"values, culture, guiding principles, and the reservoir of trust with Cataracts people† Igniting, 2010).Howard Schultz got Cataracts back on track by using his existing knowledge of the company, an asset other Coos did not have. He tried to do ‘the right thing† by shutting down the stores for three and a half hours for retraining. He said, ‘†We are retraining our people because we have forgotten what we stand for, and that is the pursuit of an unequivocal, absolute commitment to quality† (Igniting, 2010). Schultz motivation and thirst for success allowed Cataracts to regain its strength.In the years 2006 to 201 3, the company underwent several leadership arrangements because Schultz carefully chose certain people for leadership positions that would optimize the growth of the company. In 2011, Cataracts adopted a new corporate structure to accelerate its growth strategy. Schult z said, â€Å"Our company performance over the past two years has positioned Cataracts for significant international opportunities ahead† (â€Å"Cataracts Announces New Leadership,† 2011 He decided to execute a multi-brand, multinational strategy that would optimize the company's speed and focus going forward.Schultz implemented a three-region organization Structure including China and Asia Pacific, the Americas, and MEME (Europe, LLC. K. Middle East, Russia, and Africa). He selected John Culver, Cliff Burrows, and Michelle Gas to serve as president of each region, and the presidents' responsibilities included working with licensed and joint-venture business partners and reporting to Schultz. Cataracts also created a â€Å"multi-brand, multi-channel future by building a portfolio of branded business united beyond the Cataracts retail brand† (â€Å"Cataracts Announces New Leadership,† 201 1).Cattle's Best Coffee and Taco Tea both continued to be important growth opportunities as they generated revenue for the company. Building on the new corporate structure and company success, Schultz decided to strengthen the Cataracts Senior Leadership team in 2014 because he wanted to position the company ‘to leverage its assets and operations, and gain maximum benefit from the retail, consumer, mobile, and digital shifts currently underway in the global marketplace† (â€Å"Cataracts Strengthens Senior Leadership Team†, 2014).Schultz said, â€Å"These organizational moves map our internal talent to the rapidly evolving retail environment and significant strategic and market opportunities ahead of us. With the new leadership structure, Schultz wanted to bring â€Å"greater financial and operational discipline† and to focus on the Cataracts mission and its growth (â€Å"Cataracts Strengthens Senior Leadership Team†, 2014). Senior leadership changes include Troy Lasted to Chief Operating Officer, Scott Maw to Execut ive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, and Craig Russell to Executive Vice President.With these changes, Schultz intended to focus on â€Å"generation retailing and payments initiatives in the areas of digital, mobile, card, loyalty, and e-commerce† and to prepare for â€Å"its next wave of global growth† â€Å"Cataracts Strengthens Senior Leadership Team†, 2014). The senior leadership changes took effect on February 3, 2014, and Cataracts continues to thrive under the leadership of Howard Schultz. Although Schultz is only one of many leaders who has appeared throughout history, he continues to help redefine what leadership is and how to use one's leadership skills to run a successful company.In general, leadership is defined as the process of providing general direction and influencing individuals or groups to achieve goals, but leaders convey leadership in many different ways (Collar, 201 1). One theory that explains why Schultz is an exceptional lead er is the trait theory of leadership. Atone time, â€Å"it was thought that some people were born with certain traits that made them effective leaders, whereas others were born without leadership traits† (Collar, 201 1).However, research has shown that leaders can learn or develop many of the traits or characteristics that they posses. Still, researchers agree that most successful leaders tend to share common leadership traits, regardless if they learn or inherit them. Some of these important leadership traits include drive, motivation, integrity, self- inference, cognitive ability, knowledge of domain, openness to new experiences, and extroversion, all of which Howard Schultz and other successful leaders exhibit. For example, Schultz displayed both drive and motivation when starting his company.Despite financial stress and emotional struggles with his father's death, Schultz â€Å"channeled his drive to build a company where his father would be proud to work† (George, 2007). Schultz used his past struggles to drive him forward and motivate him to create a working environment that his employees loved and were satisfied with. Rather than displaying a personalized power motive, Schultz displayed a socialized power motive to achieve goals that were in the best interest of the organization and its followers.Schultz also exhibits integrity, since he is honest and maintains consistency between what he says and what he does. As a result, his employees trust him and are happy to work for a company that is ethically sound and fair. The Deciphers Institute named Cataracts as one of the â€Å"World's Most Ethical Companies† for the eighth year in a row because of its honest and trustworthy leaders and employees (â€Å"Cataracts and Howard†, 2014). Furthermore, Schultz also uses his cognitive ability and knowledge of gourmet coffee and customer service to positively influence and teach his employees and partners.Schultz even traveled to Italy t o gain insight on the unique community experience that many Italian espresso bars play in customers' lives so that he could apply many of these concepts that he learned in Italy to his own coffee shops. As a result, Schultz has used traits like his knowledge, drive, motivation, and integrity to make Cataracts into the successful organization that he had always dreamed of as a young child (George, 2007). In addition to trait theory, Schultz leadership skills also support the transformational leadership theory.Transformational leadership theory involves motivating followers to do more than expected, to continuously develop and grow, to increase their level of self-confidence, and to place the interest of the organization before their own. As a result, transformational leaders, like Schultz, are charismatic as well as intellectually stimulating and show individual consideration of followers. Schultz is the perfect example of a transformational leader because he created a company based on his vision f excellence and innovation for the modern coffee shop.His goal was to create a â€Å"third place† for customers in addition to their home and office by focusing on customer service and satisfaction. Therefore, he focused on empowering and instilling pride even in bottom line employees, so that they could be happy at work and create the positive environment that Schultz wanted Cataracts to have. In order to motivate employees, Schultz â€Å"instituted a training program designed to groom knowledgeable employees who would enjoy working behind a counter,† since he believed that friendly, efficient employees would boost sales (â€Å"Howard Schultz,† 2008).By providing high quality products for customers that employees were knowledgeable about, Schultz was able to give employees a job that they could feel proud of and happy to be at. According to John R. Scarsdale, â€Å"Schultz believes the only competitive advantage Cataracts has as a national retai l company is its workforce† (Scarsdale, 2013). Therefore, Schultz values his employees' performance and happiness over everything else that Cataracts offers. As a result, Schultz leadership style â€Å"is based on his compassion for, and commitment to, customers and staff alike† (â€Å"Howard Schultz,† n. D. ).Schultz knows that the key to any company's success begins with its workforce, because the employees interact with the customer everyday and deliver the actual product. Schultz notes, m{U can't expect your employees to exceed the expectations of your customers if you don't exceed the employees' expectations of management. That's the contract† (â€Å"More Excellent Customer Service Quotes†, n. D. ). Although Schultz leadership traits and transformational leadership style are both crucial reasons for Cataracts huge success over the past 40 years, some situational factors are also responsible for part of Cataracts' success.Some Of these situationa l factors include higher demand for quality, increase in fast food businesses, and convenient store locations. Today more and more individuals are focusing on the quality of the food and beverages that they put into their bodies, which has resulted in a higher demand for quality. Rather than just simply buying the cheapest product, consumers want a product that offers the most value for a reasonable price. For example, today more consumers prefer a cup of coffee that is fresh and made to order rather than a cup of coffee that is pre-made from synthetic ingredients.Therefore, any customers are willing to pay a dollar or two more for a higher quality coffee product rather than a lower quality coffee product. However, customers still expect the price for high quality coffee to be fairly reasonable, since the focus on quality in food products is becoming so important. Therefore, consumers now expect high quality products at a lower price. As a result, Cataracts has been able to capitali ze on this new demand for high quality products at a reasonable price with its wide array of quality coffee and beverages.In addition to demand for quality, fast food businesses seem to be lose by no matter where one goes because the demand for food and beverages to go has skyrocketed over the past few decades. Many individuals these days are always on the move and looking for a food or coffee establishment that can satisfy their needs in a short and efficient amount of time. Although it seems as though fast food and beverage options are never out of reach these days, this was not always the case for many coffee shops.For example, Schultz encountered the original Cataracts Coffee in the 1 sass during a sales call in Seattle, when the company only sold roasted whole bean coffees and did not brew coffee to sell. However, now Cataracts offers a huge variety of beverages, snacks, and much more that take only under a few minutes to make for customers. Additionally, Cataracts' convenient locations are another situational factor that helped add to its fast success, since the locations are typically very accessible and easy to find. In addition, the demand for drive thru windows has also given Cataracts a boost for customers in a hurry.Rather than having to physically go into a Cataracts store to order coffee, customers can order from their car if they are in a hurry. As a result, Cataracts has benefited tremendously from its convenient actions and fast service. Situational factors, such as demand for quality, increase in fast food chains, convenient locations, and many others, are all extremely important contributions to Cataracts' huge success. However, Howard Schultz leadership traits and skills that he instilled within his employees were also critical to keep Cataracts the number one coffee chain in the world.For example, Cataracts could be a completely different type of coffee company without Schultz guidance, and both his employees and Cataracts customers would not be as happy without his focus on employee satisfaction and quality service. Although Cataracts would likely still be somewhat successful without Schultz leadership, the company would likely have trouble differentiating itself from other coffee chains. Furthermore, the company also would not have as many loyal customers without their focus on quality customer service, since the employees would not be required to go through intense training.In addition, employees would not be as happy, since many of the employee benefits such as health care may not exist without Schultz. Consequently, unhappy employees could turn away potential and existing customers and only allow Cataracts to have short-term success. As a result, without Schultz focus on employee and customer satisfaction, the situational factors would not have mattered in the long run. Therefore, Schultz leadership skills were essential in establishing Cataracts as a dominant force in the coffee industry.Although Schultz allegi ance clearly lies with Cataracts, he could apply many of his leadership skills and abilities to another organization if needed. For example, if Howard Schultz was the CEO of Wall-Mart, he could use his knowledge and experience from Cataracts to lead Wall-Mart in a more positive direction by improving the quality of employees' jobs. Currently, several issues exist that may hold the company back from reaching its full potential. Hidden beneath operational problems, diminished sales, and low customer service ratings, employees are complaining about low salaries, erratic scheduling, and understanding (Heal, 2008).Currently, as many as 825,000 of Wall-Mart workers have an annual income of less than $25,000 (â€Å"Five Ways:' 2014). Wall-Mart is one of the most successful companies in the country and can certainly afford to raise these salaries so that hard working employees are able to support a family. Also, Wall-Mart employs a large annuity of employees in part-time positions, allowin g the company to skimp on costs, when most of these employees desire more hours (â€Å"Five Ways,† 2014). Workers are becoming frustrated with executives avoiding this crucial issue.Protests occurred at roughly 1,500 Wall-Mart stores on this past Black Friday alone. The protesters, a mix of workers and supporters, held signs calling for higher pay and better working conditions. To make matters worse, massive cuts of worker hours are taking a toll on consumer ratings of the company. A recent Consumer Reports Survey placed Wall-Mart at the bottom of the list of grocers. Shoppers mentioned the understanding, a clear cause of, â€Å"long lines and an overall poor customer service† (â€Å"Walter Ranks,† 2014).According to Geoffrey Heal (2008), accusations against Wall-Mart include â€Å"gender discrimination, low wages, excessive use of part-time labor, and harsh working conditions. † Based off these accusations, if Schultz were the CEO of Wall-Mart, its posit ion would be much different. Many of these weak areas are exactly where Cataracts has excelled over the past few decades. Schultz recon sized an approach that would build success for a Company with such a large number of employees. First, Cataracts pays its employees wages far above the service branch average and offers low-cost health benefit opportunities.Cataracts realized early on that properly training employees and acting generously towards them would lead to a very low employee turnover rate, which would reward the company in the future (Heal, 2008). Perhaps Wall-Mart's biggest challenge is that, unlike Cataracts, many of the employees are not proud to work there. Schultz prides Cataracts on being an employer that people trust. Workers share genuine hope for the company's future, and they want to be a part of it. Wall-Mart, on the other hand, is facing new lawsuits continuously -? and its own employees file a lot of them.Within the past year, the National Labor Relations Boar d filed a complaint against Wall-Mart for illegally firing and punishing about 60 workers who vocalizes a desire for change (â€Å"Five Ways,† 2014). In comparison, Howard Schultz has always treated his employees with respect and valued their individual opinions. Cataracts often holds open forums and encourages employees to speak their minds, even it they have negative comments. The combination of these criticisms along with praise in table areas has been important in contributing to shape the future of Cataracts and its culture.Schultz realized the value of personal connection when building Cataracts, and this is the major area that Wall-Mart needs improvement in. According to the case study, Schultz notes that remaining a humble and grounded entrepreneur is crucial. Schultz would bring this attitude to the executives at Wall-Mart, who currently do not cherish their employees as assets of the company. The case study reinforces Cataracts as a company that listens to and under stands each employee by noting the many has â€Å"implemented generous employee benefits, training programs, and employee stock ownership programs. For this reason, the transformation of Cataracts serves as a great model for the hypothetical situation of Schultz as CEO of Wall-Mart. Schultz would excel as the CEO of Wall-Mart, providing a fresh perspective to the executives and managers, and instilling values from the immense growth at Cataracts during his time there. No longer would bullying workers be acceptable, and â€Å"changing this culture of intimidation would go a long way to improving labor relations† (â€Å"Five Ways,† 2014). The basic change off higher minimum wage would reduce the number of protests and cause employees to feel a more prideful connection to the company.With Schultz as CEO, Wall-Mart executives would begin to recognize the importance of listening to employees across all levels and this simple act would go a long way to make the company a st ronger unit. Despite Howard Schultz eight-year hiatus in 2000, he has been one of Cataracts' greatest assets by building its fundamental ideals and values and staying involved to communicate his vision. For these reasons, Schultz is known around the world as one of the greatest leaders in the business world cause of his ethical values, passion, and communication skills.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Toothy and Toothsome

Toothy and Toothsome Toothy and Toothsome Toothy and Toothsome By Maeve Maddox A reader remarks on the use of toothsome in this headline at Discovery-dot-com: Crocodiles are fun-loving, finds a new study on the toothsome predators. Unless the writer thinks of crocodiles chiefly as the source of a tasty meal, a more appropriate word is toothy. Here are the usual definitions of toothsome and toothy: toothsome adjective: pleasant to the taste; palatable. Figuratively, â€Å"sexually attractive.† Examples of correct use of toothsome: A  toothsome  rich cheesecake awaits a lick of flame and a douse of brandy strawberries.  - Clementine Nicholson. If youre writing an article on how Julia Robertss starring role as Erin Brockovich transformed her image from  toothsome movie star  to serious actress, you dont want to have to wade through the hundreds of fan pages you’d find by just typing in â€Å"Julia Roberts.†Ã‚  - Writers’ Digest Books. toothy adjective: having numerous, large, or prominent teeth. Example of correct use of toothy: Even those who know nothing about [Teddy Roosevelt’s] presidency instantly recognize his image carved on Mount Rushmorehis huge, toothy smile [sic] and his wire-rimmed glasses- Digital History site, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Note: The glasses are evident on the Rushmore image, but Borglum did not sculpt TRs trademark toothy smile. Toothsome is not offered as a synonym for toothy in either the OED or M-W, but the Web abounds in examples of this mix-up, on both sides of the Atlantic: All hail our bespectacled and toothsome new footie messiah-Liverpool Football Club football manager- New Statesman (UK) (Photos show the person referred to (Jà ¼rgen Klopp, manager, Liverpool Football Club) smiling with Teddy Roosevelt brilliance.) But they [relationship problems] seemed to be imperceptible as she flashed a toothsome smile to onlookers.- Daily Mail (UK). Here is Teddy (since he has such a dazzling white smile, from here on out, he’ll be known as Toothsome Teddy).- Review of television show on a US entertainment site called Newnownext. I grinned at her and was rewarded with a toothsome smile before she hurried to the pickup and began pulling the broken crates out of the bed.- Sylvia Nobel, American novelist. Authors and reviewers of children’s books that feature crocodiles are especially prone to use toothsome to suggest a mouthful of teeth: Galdone, Paul. The Monkey and the Crocodile. That toothsome crocodile and wily monkey almost leap across the page as they try to outsmart one another. Sierra, Judy. Mind Your Manners, B.B. Wolf. His best friend, a  toothsome crocodile, warns him that he will have to mind his manners.   Bruenig, Mikkela. In a while, Crocodile. So he and Dennis take a trip into The Great Big Book of Everything to find out about the  toothsome crocodile! In each of these examples, the word should be toothy. Both toothsome and toothy date from the sixteenth century, but toothsome has not held up as well as toothy. The Ngram Viewer shows toothsome reaching its peak in 1900 and descending in a straight line since then. Toothy, on the other hand, doesn’t make much of a showing on the Viewer until 1960, when it shows a marked rise. M-W offers toothsome as a third meaning for toothy and gives this example: â€Å"the toothy morsel within- Manufacturing Confectioner.† Paper and cigars can be toothy. â€Å"Toothy paper† has a rough finish. A â€Å"toothy cigar† has bumps on the wrapper. In time, standard usage may come to accept â€Å"full of teeth† as an acceptable definition of toothsome. For the present, careful writers will reserve toothsome to mean tasty, palatable, or attractive and use toothy to describe crocodiles and smiles. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:15 Terms for Those Who Tell the FutureDoes "Mr" Take a Period?10 Writing Exercises to Tighten Your Writing

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Issues In Ethical Hacking And Penetration Testing Information Technology Essay Essays

Issues In Ethical Hacking And Penetration Testing Information Technology Essay Essays Issues In Ethical Hacking And Penetration Testing Information Technology Essay Paper Issues In Ethical Hacking And Penetration Testing Information Technology Essay Paper In this fast turning concern universe the growing of Information Technology is sky-scraping. Information is a concern plus, therefore it is really of import to protect the Business Intelligence and the confidential information. It may protect its handiness, privateness and unity. Information Security is more than protecting computing machine informations security ; it is the procedure of protecting the rational belongings of an organisation which engages with Network Security. The handiness of entree to stored information onA serverA databases has increased to a great extent. Most of the companies store their concern and single information on their computing machine than of all time before. Many concerns are entirely stand on information stored in their information centres. Personal staff inside informations, client lists, wages, bank history inside informations, selling, gross revenues information and more significantly their research and development secret formula or selling schemes may all be stored on a database. If they lack this information, it would straight impact the concern operations. Therefore powerful Information security systems needed to be executed to protect this information. The biggest menace to concerns may be the people who make a life fromA hackingA or transgressing through information security systems. By utilizing their technological accomplishments, they are courageous plenty to interrupt into computing machine system and entree secured information. Hackers can even turn your place computing machine into a bomb ( Randy Jefferies, 2005 ) . Firewalls, which are intended to forestall entree to a computing machine web, can be easy bypassed by aA black chapeau viz. a hacker with the right tools and accomplishments. The breach can ensue a heavy loss of important information, or a virus could be planted and cancel all secured information as an interloper. So that is why Information Security Professionals plays a huge function in this Business Industry, because of this, there is an of import place for ethical hackers, who can support and protect the organisation against cybercriminals and even they are capable of perforating their ain system for the testing intents.When the inquiry arise that, is choping really bad? Or is it possibleA that there are times when hacking can be seen as good? Before addressingA these scenarios, the term hackers and moralss demands to be defined. So this is where ethical hacker comes in. Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing Ethical Hacking can be defined as choping a web or a system to seek and prove exposures that a hacker could work and take advantage of the system. This implies, making it for the improvement of the house. This procedure is done to procure and support the system from cybercriminals known as black chapeaus with a lawfully authorised manner. The people who involve in ethical hacking are called as white chapeaus who are professionally trained security experts. Most of the houses employ one these White Hats to protect their information systems whilst some house s hires. The Computer offense is where the computing machine isA the topographic point of the offense and the condemnable activities can run fromA fraud, larceny, and counterfeit. Businesss who try to near the problemA have independent computing machine security professionals who attempt to breakA into the computing machine systems and penetrate as mentioned above. Both of these people, crackers andA professionals are ethical hackers, but they have different moralss. Negative observation of hacking, When is choping bad? In recent intelligence, a certain hacker who claims to beA known as Gwerdna hacked into a Mac computing machine, He even made remarks onA how easy it was for him to chop into the security and he has stated to interrupt into that library machine he merely took 10 proceedingss. ( Micheal Harvey, 2006 ) . The term Ethical Hacking can be addressed as incursion proving. This is a method of measuring the web or computing machine system by imitating an onslaught from a malicious beginning, a White Hat Hacker but act as a Black Hat Hacker ( Wikipedia, 2010 ) . These ethical hackers use these methods which can be identified and clarified as malicious package s viz. Buffer Overflow, Logic Bomb, Parasite, Sniffer, Spoof, Trojan Horse, Virus, Worms. Importance and Benefits of Ethical Hacking As mentioned above the ground for carry oning an ethical drudge, evidently, is to maintain information assets secure. One study conducted by Rick Blum, stated that It ( ethical hacking ) is really of import and helps salvage you money and repute in the long tally. ( Rick Blum, 2009 ) .Network testing is the most of import type of ethical drudge, because it is obvious the hacker can easy interrupt the firewall and acquire into the web. So web should be extremely secured. That s a ground why it is considered as a really of import fact for organisation because of the lifting cyber offense rates and the high growing of cyber felons. Since computing machine engineering has developed, the offense rates besides increased. The rational hackers have made mass devastations and losingss for many companies and they have damaged their database and leaked information. Had exploited the trade name image of most of the houses and damaged their trust on their patronage. Hackers have transferred 1000000s of dollars without any consciousness of the Bankss and their engagement. Even hacked into constabulary section s exigency aid desks. For illustration a group of hackers called Vandals hacked the New York City Police Departments voice- mail system and replaced the usual polite proclamations with You have reached the New York City Police Department. For any existent exigencies, dial 119.Anyone else we re a small busy right now eating some doughnuts and holding java. It continued You can merely keep the line. We ll acquire back to you.We re small slow, if you know what I mean. Thank You . The bogus messages continued for 12 hours before they were investigated and corrected by ethical hackers ( Donald Pimkins, 2000 ) Some clip ethical hacking will non uncover exposures of a web or a system. But there are a figure of effect benefits that can be derived from an ethical hacking procedure. The image below will give a clear thought of what are the benefits available in this procedure and how it can be prioritized. Referee: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.isaca.org/Images/journal/jrnlv2-06-red-teams-audit-tool-2.jpg The size of the menace depends on the type of the concern and how its tantrums with hacker s motivations. Therefore to forestall these sorts of issues and menaces in future houses employ ethical hackers. The term moralss will be clearly structured in the undermentioned paragraphs with the support of ethical rules, ethical issues, ethical quandary and ethical theories. Business Ethical motives Harmonizing to the survey Business moralss can be defined as a signifier of applied moralss that examine ethical rules and moral or ethical jobs that occur in a concern environment ( Gwendolyn Cuizon, 2009 ) . Many concerns have gained a bad repute merely by being in concern. By non being stick to concern moralss policy houses may fall in problem, if a concern is damaged by an ethical catastrophe it affects the underside line which implies net income. It is agreed that IT systems are put in topographic point to back up the strategic planes of an organisation which would be in lined with concern moralss. So that is why organisations see moralss as, a conveying competitory border to their concern. In my point of position in concern, the perspective position of stakeholders are different, they see there s what s illegal, what s legal but unethical, ethical but against company policy, non against policy but non in the client s best involvements, and eventually what s non truly opposite to the client s best involvements but is nt truly traveling to profit them furthermore. Which can be understood by the below image. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gryphonshafer.com/blog/2008/08/business_ethics.png Ethical Principles and Ethical Issues Ethical rules can be defined as the foundation of ethical behaviour. An ethical rule arrives from the societal Context, from spiritual beliefs, and from ethical theory. These ethical rules can applied to computing machine engineerings that have an impact on people s day-to-day lives where they interacts in authorities, in instruction, at work, at drama land and exercise ) ( Penny Duquenoy, 2010 ) Some general ethical rules can be listed as Respecting others See others as equal Keep promises Respect the belongings of others Act candidly The rules can be addressed as below which relevant to Information Systems professionals and related engineerings officers. The Royal Academy of Engineering, in coaction with Engineering Council ( UK ) and a figure of the taking professional technology establishments, has developed a Statement of Ethical Principles to which it believes all professional applied scientists and Information Professionals should follow. aˆ? Accuracy and Rigor aˆ? Honesty and Integrity aˆ? Respect for Life, Law and the Public Good aˆ? Responsible Leadership: Listening and Informing ( Engineering Ethical motives, 2007 ) Ethical issues can be addressed as whatever threatens or interrupt an ethical rule is an ethical issue. For illustration ethical rule Respect the belongings of others Ethical Issue Hack person s computing machine without their permission and steal information and destroy it by directing a virus or a worm So by understanding this illustration an ethical issue can be clearly understood. And to measure these sorts of ethical issues in different positions ethical theories should be applied. Ethical Theories As discussed above an ethical issue can be identified and evaluated by utilizing ethical theories.These theories can be used as tools for doing ethical determinations, and they may besides helpful in supplying a footing for critical thought. An issue can be taken in different positions and formed sentiments with helpful of ethical theories. There are two chief ethical theories, Kantianism Consequentialism Kantianism The Kants theory can be defined summarized without traveling in deep. Kant says that how we behave ethically comes from within us, and the things that we decide are good or bad are based on whether we could conceive of everyone making them. ( Immanuel Kant ) So for illustration, it would be logically conflicting to state that interrupting a promise is good because if everyone broke their promises there would be a loss of trust in promises, and the whole nature of a promise would be lost. Therefore, he says, that certain things can non be universalized which means they would non work if everyone did them, and those things are incorrect. Examples are: killing others, lying, stealing, interrupting promises. Furthermore, in Kant s point of position, things that we view as wrong are basically incorrect that is, they are ever incorrect and there is neer any ground state of affairs where they would be right. This conflicts straight with the theory of consequentialism, which will be addressed following. Consequentialism Consequentialism theory can be defined as, a theory which deals with effects of actions instead than the actions themselves.So, and for illustration, it could be argued that stealing could sometimes be the right action to take provided the result is for the good . Theory says that a good result is that which brings the greatest benefit to the greatest figure of people . Therefore larceny, for illustration, is a morally acceptable act if it brings greater benefit to the greatest figure. For illustration, if a male monarch has a warehouse full of nutrient when most of the people in the state are hungering. In this case stealing the nutrient to administer it to the starvation people would be the right thing to make. So by this act a great figure of people get benefited. So in this instance harmonizing to consequentialism theory stealing is non bad while it to the full contradicts with Kantians theory. Ethical Dilemmas Ethical quandary can be addressed as moral quandary. An ethical quandary is a state of affairs where in moral rule or ethical duties conflict in such a manner as to do any possible declaration to the quandary morally unbearable. In other words, an ethical quandary is any state of affairs in which steering moral rules can non find which class of action is right or incorrect. Can simplified as you will hold issue and you will hold a solution which will take you to an unethical manner. ( Lee Flamand, 2007 ) . Ethical, Legal, Professional, Social and Cultural Issues in Ethical Hacking When we discuss about ethical hacking there are many issues which can be listed, which will originate in many fortunes. For measuring these issues and come up with a good solution or sentiments the above discussed, structured ethical rules and ethical theories can be taken off. This will evidently give a clear image to the reader. In this survey for farther more analysis two of import incidents will be assessed by me utilizing the both ethical theories. A Dutch hacker who copied patient files from a University of Washington medical centre ( and was non caught ) said in an online interview that he did it to publicise the system s exposure non to utilize the information. He disclosed parts of the files to a journalist after the medical centre said that no patient files had been copied. ( Sara Baase, A Gift of Fire, 2003. ) If we critically measure the above scenario, it is obvious that the hacker has committed a cyber offense and he should be punished harmonizing to the Kantianism theory which tells some actions are ever incorrect . Even though the Dutch hacker did nt misused the copied files he has break into the web and penetrated it. So it s ethically incorrect when we see in the position of Kant s theory. But if we evaluate this utilizing Consequentialism theory it will wholly belie with Kantianism theory. Though the hacker was non acquire caught he has came to an online interview to denote that there is exposure in University of Washington s medical Centre s web which can be easy attacked. So this good behaviour of the hacker shows that he has came to this determination refering about the improvement of the patients. which direct the theory an action is good If the effects bring greatest benefit to figure of people .If he has published all the copied files through the cyberspace the both parti es will be acquire affected, the patients and the University. The files may incorporate confidential information of patients and which they neer want to expose. So although this act can be identified as ethically right whilst its lawfully incorrect. Therefore by this action the Medical Centre gets a opportunity to procure and support their systems from future onslaughts. But a harmonizing to the statement A solution to an ethical issue can raise another issue Anonymous. May be this act is ethically right harmonizing to the theory of Consequentialism. But what if the hacker found some medical information about his friend? Which information is a kept secret? What if he tells him? What if the friends get to cognize that his confidential medical information has got leaked through the cyberspace? These sorts of issues can originate which will sometimes take into an ethical quandary. If we move to the following instance which is, A 17 twelvemonth old hacker know as YTcracker, who penetrated several authorities and military web sites ( including those properties to the Bureau of Land Management s National Training Center, NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center and the Defense Contracts Audit Agency ) said he routinely sends messages to authorities web site decision makers take a firm standing that they address exposures and follow Unix or other more unafraid systems can be penetrated, but the messages mostly go neglected. YTcracker said in his disfigurement of web site he targeted systems the authorities would look at and take earnestly and procure it. ( Federal Computer Week, 1999 ) Though this instance is Similar to the above discussed one, it provides a different thought. The hacker who has penetrated all these sites called YTcracker has merely one purpose that is to alarm and advise the authorities organisations to protect their valuable information s, Which can be easy breached and gained entree. If critically measure this instance harmonizing to the Kantianism theory. The act of YTcracker is ethically incorrect as it threatens the ethical rules go beyond the theory. But harmonizing to the point of Consequentialism theory the act is ethical. Because the hacker has nt done any harm to the authorities organisations utilizing their web sites. He has merely warned and notified them to do them more secured. So greater sum of people gets benefited, because there are most sensitive information s are available in authorities sites such as National Security, Military and NASA. So if the hacker leaks the information from their databases what will go on there are would be a immense job for the US authorities. But both of these incidents are illegal harmonizing to the Computer Misuse Act 1990 even they are ethical harmonizing to the theories. Because the hackers have offended unauthorised entree to computing machine stuff ( Misuse Act 1990 ) Ethical Concerns and Professional Issues When implementing an ethical drudge in an organisation there are ethical issues which engages with information systems professionals can be addressed as, Ethical Hackers have to interrupt the organisations security policy and processs. Violating the codification of behavior. Privacy of the employer and employees Secret Business scheme, Marketing Strategy and merchandise formula escape If we further analyze above ethical issues a inquiry may originate, Does ethical hacking is ethical? Before address the issues, we are tend to happen a solution for the above inquiry so if, we evaluate the inquiry by seting into Kantianism theory somehow its interrupting the regulations and ordinance, braking the houses security policies and processs, perforating the codification of behavior. So this act of ethical hacking can can non be ethical. Even though the professional hackers do it legally it can be unethical, Harmonizing to Kant s point of position. Sing with position point of consequentialism theory this procedure can be identified as ethically right, because it s all done for the improvement of the organisation. So there is no manner of knocking it. Firms do these to seek the exposures and support the full web there should be a testing process. So this can be taken as that. In this point of position we can make up ones mind it s all ethically correct, even though they break their ain codification of behavior. As information systems professionals point of position ethical hacking can be identified as a complete muss. Because they have to lodge to a codification of behavior. Then merely they are professionals. But when they are being forced to go against these footings when they involve in incursion trials there are in problem as professionals. Therefore as professionals who are expected to follow with local Torahs, sometimes they may hold to measure and measure ethical and legal issues against their forces values. There can be privacy invasion takes topographic point when they do a ethical drudge. Most of the houses hire an ethical since they do nt use one. So when he perforate their systems and web he can acquire whatever the information he needs from the organisations databases and webs. All confidential employee and spouse paperss and information can be seen. The ethical hacker is able to see all the weak points of the firewall. If the ethical hacker is non a professional he may assail the organisation subsequently when he needs. Or he will be a large menace. So these issues may originate. And even the secret selling and concern scheme of a taking company leaks the hacker can sell it for the rivals. So this would be a menace for some houses to carry on and incursions test utilizing an Legal Issues and Laws When sing about legal facets, the issues which was discussed in the above paragraphs can be brought up since it involves legal issues. Even though those incidents were ethical, it s wholly illegal, because it breaks the Computer Misuse Act 1990. This Act will be clearly discussed below, The Computer Misuse Act 1990 TheA Computer Misuse Act 1990A is an Act of theA UK Parliament. The Bill finally became the Computer Misuse Act in August 1990.The Act introduced three new condemnable offenses: Unauthorized entree to computing machine stuff Unauthorized entree to computing machine stuff with the purpose to perpetrate or ease committee of farther offenses Unauthorized alteration of computing machine stuff. ( Statuelaw, 1990 ) What if an ethical hacker pretends to be an inside interloper? He who knows the full web and secrets of a company. So he can easy damage and destruct the full information system. When these state of affairss occur harmonizing to the abuse act legal issues can be identified. For an illustration a disgruntled computing machine technician at Reuters in Hong Kong detonated logic bombs at five investment-bank clients, doing 36 hours of downtime in webs supplying market information crucial for trading. The Bankss switched instantly to alternative services and reported no important effects on their work ; nevertheless, Reuters was profoundly embarrassed by the incident ( Financial Times Limited, November 1996 ) so looking into these factors the organisation should be to the full cognizant of these sorts of menace which can be aroused. Sometimes Internal political relations may coerce the ethical hacker to do immense losingss for the house. When they employ for and public company. There are so many people in a manager board. So what if the ethical hacker gets an order from higher direction to works a logic bomb or make a parasite for of import information of the house and put the incrimination on another individual. For the ethical hacker this occupation is non that much hard. Even they may inquire him to steal other companies confidential paperss. This might do legal issues which will wholly damage the house s repute. These sorts of issues can originate without the consciousness of the direction. Social and Cultural Concerns It is agreed that in concern moralss there are tonss of issues as deeply addressed in above paragraphs and societal and cultural issues can besides identified as one of them. Social issues are about to impact on the society. IT depends on the society s reaction and behaviour. Harmonizing to the ethical rules houses should negociate with the society. If an Information System of a Hospital or a School got hacked, there would be immense issues in the society. As their sensitive information contain on those Information Systems. Similarly this instance may happen in a house. So when an ethical hacker gets involved in this procedure he has to maintain the trust on them if non the incrimination can be put on him by the society. So both parties get affected. The trade name image can be acquire spoilt in the society when their information s get leaked out. They will lose the trust and religion on their employer. And when the ethical hacking procedure gets leaked out there are opportunities of impacting the company s civilization. If there is a civilization there are certain values to be respected. And if this values acquire exploited by the incursion examiners issues may originate. And when they design these IS system they should esteem the values without harming it. For e.g. Pornography. Decision From the clearly structured survey, it is understood ethical hacking consideration is important to keeping a verifiable degree of information security. Even though there are tonss of issues in certain facets of Ethical hacking ; it is a critical constituent of our overall security plan which keeps the internal, contracted security. Ethical hacking is a necessity in order to protect company assets and remain near to the world of unethical hacking. It ethical hacking is really of import and helps salvage you money and repute in the long tally. Ethical Hacking is the best manner to measure the web from an foreigner s position. To cut down the addressed issues above organisations can hold their ain ethical hacking squad or hacker to forestall outside information escape and to acquire rid of the fright of that. I think ethical hacking is a must hold for any serious organisation today in this fast moving concern universe. It should be a critical portion of any proactive organisation in today s planetary competitory market.

Monday, November 4, 2019

The New Jim Crow Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The New Jim Crow - Essay Example have been facing a number of consequences barring them from gaining equal representation in the country which has been posing as a problem especially to those that have been boxed as prisoners. The author writes, â€Å"The clock has been turned back on racial progress in America, though scarcely anyone seems to notice. All eyes are fixed on people like Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey who have defied the odds and achieved great power, wealth and fame.† An insight has been provided into the Jim Crow laws which in the past had replaced slavery and thus an explanation of how the same is required in order to deal with minority groups of people belonging to different castes so as to not relegate them to a racial status. The main aim of this piece of writing is to renovate the idea of human rights and equality in the minds of people in order to provide justice to criminals as well as make transparent data and information before wrongfully incarcerating

Friday, November 1, 2019

Sears changes again and again Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Sears changes again and again - Essay Example And since the top management of the organization are the decision makers, they have the power and capability to initiate strategic change. Strategic change affects the â€Å"... goals, systems, structures, work processes, values, mission and culture† of businesses (Jacobs, 2010). This means that such changes are far-reaching and they affect the entire organization over a period of time. There is always a reason for change. This is because top level management makes changes to attain certain ends. In this paper, the case refers to Sears, now known as Sears-Roebuck and Co, a U.S.-based chain of stores that provides consumer goods for the public. The paper will examine the strategic changes that occurred in the company over the past two decades. In attaining this end, the following objectives will be addressed: Normally, organizations have institutionalized cultures and systems. Institutionalism is defined by Poole and Van De Ven (2004) as the culture and structures that guide activities in an organization. As such, every organization nurtures a type of system that enables it to operate and maintain its unique identity. Sears had its own system and structures. The initial system was to produce household appliances and run departmental stores in the early 1990s. The institutional structures and systems of the company had survived through the 1980s to the 90s. This shows that they believed in traditions and systems. However, the company seemed to have priorities: maintaining Sears as a going concern. When this was threatened, they had to find ways of adjusting the institutional structures to keep the companys performance high. So they resorted to bringing in Martinez, who was from a completely different background. Gottschalk (2007, p.14) states that â€Å"outside successors are often selected when in periods of poor firm performance and when directors cannot locate a competent successor in-house.† In order for new CEOs to succeed, they will need to